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Full text of "The young housewife's counsellor and friend: containing directions in every department of housekeeping. Including the duties of wife and mother"

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V. 



THE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE'S 



COUNSELLOR AND FRIEND. 



THE 



YOUNG HOUSEWIFE'S 



COUNSELLOR AND FRIEND: 



CONTAINING 



DIRECTIONS IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 
OF HOUSEKEEPING. 



INCLUDINa 



THE DUTIES OF WIFE AND MOTHER. 



BY 

MRS. MARY MASON, 

AUTHOR or ** A WREATH TROV THE WOODS OF CAROLINA/' " SPRnfO-TIME fOR 
SOWING,** ETO., PUBLISHED BT THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

BOOK BOCISTT, VEW TORK. 



" She looketb well to the wa3rs of her household, and eateth not 
the bread of idleness.** — ^Prot. xxzi. 27. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 

1871. 



/till I ^ 



h 



VJ 



V 









Enterod aooording to Aot of Congress, in the year 187 1, by 

MRS. MART MASON, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



/yUC(jy 




PEEFAOE. 



This work was first designed and undertaken at the 
earnest solicitations of two young ladies who were about 
to enter upon the important duties of married life, and, 
at their suggestion, the book proposed was to serve as 
a Counsellor, from the outset of their career, through all 
the various arrangements of a well-regulated household. 
This, doubtless, my readers will say was a very daring 
and difficult undertaking. And so indeed it was. Yet 
when the motives are weighed, the writer cannot but 
hope her lenient judges will be inclined to view the 
undertaking as more the result of affectionate solicitude 
than that of presumption or conceit. 

By the critical eye of numerous superiors in this im- 
portant branch of human knowledge, no doubt many 
omissions, mistakes, and imperfections will be discovered : 
these, she trusts, will be excused for the sake of her 
motives. 

If this book should prove the happy Counsellor of one 
successful housewife, the writer will consider herself well 
rewarded for her pains. 

Having been written expressly for the benefit of resi- 
dents of the Southern States, before emancipation, the 



Vi PREFACE. 

advice respecting the management of servants may ap- 
pear nnsaitable in some degree for those who are non- 
residents : nevertheless it will be easy to make allowance 
for these different circumstances when the above fact is 
borne in mind, so that the writer sees no necessity for 
altering the original directions. 

The cnlinary receipts of this book are all tried and 
long-practiced receipts, and the writer has taken pains to 
select them from a more multitadinons list, so as to have 
them the best and most approved. Her endeavor has 
been to make her directions perfectly intelligible, un- 
mistakable, and exact, so that no one may say the whole 
process is not understood of any one receipt. If she 
fails in this, it will not be from indifference or want of 
honest endeavor. And be well assured, most indulgent 
reader, that no efforts will be spared to render the Coun- 
sellor so useful and faithful a friend to every young 
housewife that no bridegroom in the land will think it 
possible to complete his number of bridal presents till 
he has included this book among them. 

THE AUTHOB. 
Balxigh, N. C.| November, 1870. 



CONTENTS. 



PART !• 

FA4I 

A Litter to the Originators of this Book 

Economy 10 

A Tradition 12 

Your House and its Surroundings 18 

Tour Kitehen 15 

General Hints and Directions 20 

The Laundry 81 

The Dairy.... 88 

Poultry 45 

The Garden 48 

The Nursery 60 

ChildreUi Management of...... 72 

Poetry 81-91 

The Sick-Eoom 97 

Home 108 



PART II. 

Introductory Chapter.. ..• 117 

Breakfast 120 

Various Modes of Preparing Teasts and Breads, Muffins, 

Cakes, etc 129 

Curing Meats 154 

Tour Dinner-Tahle 164 

Soups 169 

Fish 178 

Oysters, Clams, etc....... 181 

(vii) 



viii CONTENTS. 

PA6B 

Roasting -. 180 

Meats Roasted, Baked, Boiled, etc 188 

Eggs, Macaroni, etc • 208 

Gravies and Sauces 211 

Pilling 215 

Poultry, Birds, etc 216 

Vegetables 226 

Pickling 246 

Pastry 255 

Puddings 259 

Dessert 276 

Ice Creams 282 

Candies 288 

Preserving Fruits 291 

Apples 304 

Jellies 306 

The Tea 309 

Icing 310 

Cakes 314 

The Supper-Table 339 

Wines, Cordials, etc 340 

Essences 344 

Canning Fruits and Vegetables 346 

To dry Figs, Cherries, Damsons, etc 347 

Miscellaneous Receipts 348 

Poisons and Antidotes 361 

Soaps 364 

Dyes 368 



THE YOUUG HOUSEWIFE'S 



COUNSELLOR AND FRIEND. 



a lettes to the obioi vat0b8 of thx plah of this book. 

My dear Young Friends, — 

In compliance with your very urgent as well as 
flattering requests, I enter upon a task which may 
possibly subject me to the censure or ridicule of 
many who may deem my undertaking pretentious; 
still, I will for your sakes be brave enough to make 
the venture. I shall endeavor to furnish you with 
receipts for all the culinary combinations which 
you have pronounced excellent, and appeared to 
enjoy while guests at my family board, and which 
you say you desire to perpetuate as far as may be 
at your own. 

I shall give you a short chapter on each of the 
usual departments of housewifery, and many use- 
ful miscellaneous directions which you may find 
occasion to use. I shall endeavor to aid you, in 
the economical management of your servants and 
of the contents of your pantry. And, having done 
this, I shall throw myself on your indulgent kind- 
ness, to excuse any defects or omissions which may 
appear in my humble undertaking. 

(9) 



10 ECONOMY. 



EOONOMT. 



" Waste not, want not," should be the motto of 
every household. Nor is this at all inconsistent 
with liberal provision, or generous distribution of 
charities. In truth, as to both, care and economy 
will increase your means for their accomplishment, 
inasmuch as waste and thriftlessness will diminish 
your ability for either. 

Your servants should be required to rise early; 
otherwise, everything will be out of time and 
hurriedly done, and, consequently, done imperfectly. 

You should set them an example in this yourself, 
and thus make them ashamed of their delinquency. 
Besides, it would greatly strengthen your own good 
resolves to rise and dedicate the first hour of the 
morning to the praise of the great Father of Light 
and Love. 

Your meals should be at regular hours; this 
will enable your servants the better to accomplish 
their work in due time. Besides, they usually 
make your irregularity an excuse for their neglect 
of duty. 

In the culinary department you should always 
be present at your cook's first experiment in any 
one receipt, and then simply reading it to her is 
not sufficient; you should aid her by your direc- 
tion. But, after she has once succeeded in the 
preparation, you may venture to depend on her 
Judgment. 

The duties of the house-maid, too, will require 



ECONOMY, 11 

your presence, occasionally, throughout, and al- 
ways at her introduction into them. 

The eye of a kind but firm mistress is the great 
Inspiration to produce efficiency and regularity in 
her subordinates. 

And here let me counsel a strict observance of 
the day of rest and devotion. Take care that 
everything that is possible be done on Saturday, 
and so arrange your affairs that your servants may 
have at least half the day on Sunday to attend the 
worship of Almighty God. Remember that their 
souls are as precious in the sight of God as yours, 
and, therefore, be sure and avoid loading your con- 
science with the blame of their failure to reach the 
kingdom of heaven. 

Show an interest in everything that concerns 
your servants; their health, comfort, recreations, 
dress, and neat personal appearance. In this way 
you will be sure to win their esteem, love, and 
gratitude, and thus secure their faithfulness. 

If they are ignorant, instruct them ; if unmind- 
ful of their duty to God, admonish them kindly. 
Read the Scriptures to them. Teach them God's 
commandments, for, alas! many of them do not 
know of their existence. How can you expect 
them to be honest or truthful if they are ignorant 
that such is the will of their Creator ? 

A young and inexperienced housekeeper is al- 
ways more or less in the power of her servants, 
especially of her cook. It is, therefore, wise to get 
on the right side of them, so that they will be less 
inclined to take undue advantage of you. 



12 ECONOMY, 

Experience, and daily experiments, alone can 
enable you to determine what proportion of the 
various provisions of a house are necessary. If 
you find, on the first attempt, you have fallen 
short, increase the allowance the next time; if 
too abundant, decrease. Take care that all have 
enough, but that nothing be wasted. If you provide 
sufficient for your servants, there will be no excuse 
for dishonesty or repining. 

"A habit of benevolence must be kept alive, as 
all other habits are, by constant exercise. Now 
our daily behavior to our donfestics gives us an 
occasion for an uninterrupted exercise of benevo- 
lence as scarcely anything else does. There is not 
a day passes over our heads but we might con- 
tribute something to lessen the uneasiness or 
promote the happiness of those with whom we 
have to do ; and by studying to do this we mould 
ourselves more and more into the divine pattern 
afforded us by our gracious Redeemer.*' 

A TEADITION. 

There is a charming tradition connected with 
the site on which the Temple of Solomon was 
erected. It is said to have been occupied in com- 
mon by two brothers, one of whom had a family, 
the other had none. On this spot there was sown 
a field of wheat. On the evening succeeding the 
harvest, the wheat having been gathered in sepa- 
rate shocks, the elder brother said unto his wife, — 

" My young brother is unable to bear the burden 



TOUR HOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, 13 

and heat of the day; I will arise, take of my shocks 
and place with his, without his kuovvledge." 

The younger brother, being actuated by the 
same benevolent motives, said within himself, — 

" My elder brother has a family, and I have 
none; I will contribute to their support; I will 
arise, take of my shocks and place them with his, 
without his knowledge." 

" Judge of their mutual astonishment when, on 
the following morniug, they found their respective 
shocks undiminished. This course of events tran- 
spired for several nights, when each resolved in his 
own mind to stand guard and solve the mystery. 
They did so; when on the following night they 
met each other half-way between their respective 
shocks, with their arms full. Upon grounds hal- 
lowed with such associations as this was the Temple 
of Solomon erected — so spacious and magnificent, 
the wonder and admiration of the world. Alas! in 
these days, how many would sooner steal their 
brother's whole shock than add to it a single 
sheaf!*' 



YOTIE HOUSE AND ITS SUEEOTINDINGS. 

If you build, take care that your house is agree- 
ably located; if possible, on a slight eminence, for 
then you will enjoy the benefit of fresh air, and 
avoid dampness, to say nothing of the additional 
beauty in the prospect. 

It will cost little, if any more, to adopt a grace- 
ful and beautiful style of architecture than that 

2 



14 YOUR SOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. 

which is coraraon or unsightly. Be sure and select 
the former. Even in a simple cottage this is im- 
portant. A pleasant prospect is always desirable, 
no matter how humbly circumstanced the dwelling. 
Shade-trees are beautiful, and of much comfort and 
utility ; but they should not be too much crowded 
around your dwelling, especially they should never 
be so placed as to subject it to the dripping from 
their boughs during rain. 

In your court-yard a simple continuous grass- 
plot (bordered, if you choose, with flowers) is far 
more admirable and more in good taste than patch- 
work flower-beds. 

Even your vegetable-garden should be enlivened 
with flowers. Place them in borders around every 
square, taking care to enrich the soil around them 
every fall and spring, trimming them carefully of 
their redundant branches. Let the eye luxuriate in 
the myriad hues and varied forms with which a 
bountiful Creator has endowed those lovely crea- 
tions for the delight of man. 

The writer of these pages was once walking 
with her little child by a garden of flowers, when, 
with a countenance radiant with delight, and a 
voice full of the melody of praise, it cried, " Oh, 
mamma! how good is God to make all these lovely 
flowers for us! Ought we not to be good and love 
Him dearly ?" 

The internal arrangements of your house should 
be made with an eye to convenience as well as 
beauty. 

Be sure and have your dining-room, pantry, 



TOUR KITCHEN. 15 

kitchen, laundry, and dairy communicating; also 
the chambers, nursery, dressing-rooms, closets, and 
bath-room. 

TOUE KITOHEH. 

Tour kitchen should be near your house, — if not 
attached to it, joined by a covered-way ; otherwise 
your servants will have to pass through rain and 
snow oftentimes, and perhaps thereby contract 
painful if not dangerous maladies. Kindness and 
consideration should always characterize the mis- 
tress of a Christian family. 

Your kitchen-yard should be laid out with neat 
sand or gravel-walks, and grass-plots, with rose- 
bushes and vines by the fences and piazzas, so 
that your dwelling may be surrounded on all sides 
with these cheering objects, — they elevate the soul, 
especially when they are glittering with morning 
dew. They will greatly aid you, too, in advancing 
the civilization as well as the pure religion of your 
domestics. How easily may the soul be led to 
ascend in gratitude to the bountiful Creator, while 
the eye beholds these most attractive indications 
of His goodness to man! Everything you can 
place in the way of your servants, to delight and 
elevate the best impulses of their nature, will ren- 
der them better and wiser, as well as happier. 

Tour poultry-yard should be at a convenient 
distance from your dwelling, say adjoining your 
barn-yard. Poultry of every kind should be ban- 
ished from the inclosures around your dwelling- 
house. They always injure your grass and flowers, 



IG rOi'li KI'ICUKN, 

besides defacing the neatness and order of your 
arrangements. It is best, too, on the score of 
economy, as a quantity of grain always falling 
from the feeding-troughs of your horses and cattle 
would be otherwise lost. 

Servants. — Praise has always a better effect 
than censure. Watch for every opportunity to 
inspire your servants with good motives. Trust 
them if you would have them honest. I have al- 
ways found that those who are most particular in 
locking up from servants are most apt to be robbed. 
If you have cause to doubt them, say nothing about 
it, but commend honesty on every suitable oppor- 
tunity, and endeavor to convince them of the folly 
of pilfering from those who are ever ready to pro- 
vide for their comfort and happiness. 

Gradually servants treated in this way will be- 
come ashamed of themselves, and abandon such 
evil courses; unless, indeed, they are thoroughly 
depraved before coming into your service. If so, 
dismiss them, when found incorrigible, before they 
contaminate the rest of your domestics. 

Counsel and encourage, reprove and condemn 
them, as you would your own erring children, not 
with rigor and hai'shness, which can only alienate 
their affections, and cause them to distrust the 
holy religion you profess or teach. 

Take care to be well informed of all your affairs, 
80 that any instiince of dishonesty or unfaithful- 
ness of any kind may not escape your observation. 
If you detect the delinquents, reprove with sorrow, 
and withdraw some accustomed privilege or in- 



TOUR KITCHEN. 17 

dulgeace for awhile, as a point of daty to them aa 
well as yourself. Servants are seldom so depraved 
as to become insensible to kindness, more especi- 
ally when they are convinced that you really have 
their happiness and their welfare at heart. 

Feed your servants bountifully, not forgetting to 
include a portion of the dainties with which their 
ready hands are constantly supplying you. In 
this way, you will always be rewarded by ^ the 
agreeable appearance of a cheerful, happy, and 
contented countenance, and a ready alacrity in 
your service. Kindness and confidence will ele- 
vate your servants, preserve, in a great measure, 
their integrity, and attach them to yourself. 

Your Cook. — Make choice of a strong, healthy, 
intelligent, brisk, cheerful, honest person ; one who 
has been accustomed to obedience, and has been 
trained in habits of neatness, for it is scarcely pos- 
sible to engraft these habits on one who has lived 
contentedly a sloven for fifteen or twenty years. 
It is almost as difficult as for the Ethiopian to 
change his skin. 

Take especial care that the disposition is not 
burdened with obstinacy or self-will. Such per- 
sons will be sure to disregard orders and instruc- 
tions whenever they clash with inclination or self- 
conceit. 

There are some families in which is found a 
natural talent for the culinary art: if possible, 
choose your cook from such a family; at all events, 
select a person who gives the preference decidedly 
to this position in the household ; avoid one who 

2* 



18 YOUR KlLCllEN. 

is averse to tlie occupation ; such will seldom 
please, unless, as is rarely the case, she or he is 
governed by moral or religious principles. 

An intelligent person is apt to have some temper. 
Amiability, it is true, is lovely in the human char- 
acter, but a superabundance of this quality in a 
cook is not desirable. Your very amiable cook is 
apt to be careless herself, as well as over-indul- 
gent to her fellow-servants for the same quality : 
and such servants will seldom be concerned at 
having put the kitchen out of order. A sprinkling 
of temper, joined to a frank and generous disposi- 
tion, is a very advantageous quality in a ruler ot 
the culinary domain. 

Cooks should be required to keep everything in 
its place, and to do everything in the right time. 
Regularity, cleanliness, diligence, and faithfulness 
are cardinal virtues in a cook. 

A mistress can neither be just nor generous who 
requires impossibilities of her cook. If this im- 
portant personage is not supplied with implements 
and materials wherewith to execute satisfactorily 
your commands, she is in a sad predicament in- 
deed, unless (as is not generally the case) she is 
endowed with an extraordinary degree of wit and 
sagacity; and even then she may be brought, by 
your neglect, to most distressing straits, if not 
to utterly abortive attempts. Supply her, then, 
prudent and generous mistress, with ample pro- 
vision of all such things as her important depart- 
ment requires: such as tables, shelves, closets. 



YOUR KITCHEN, I9 

pasteboards, sieves, tubs, pails, rolling-pins, trays, 
pots, pans, colanders, strainers, skimmers, a saw, 
hatchet, cleaver, scissors, mallet, sausage-grinder and 
stutter, coflEee-toaster, coffee-mill, tea-kettles, pots, 
mortar and pestles, soap, candles, ovens or a lirst- 
rate stove or range, tin baking-pans, furnaces, bell- 
metal kettles, porcelain kettles and stew-pans, 
towels, boiling-cloths, bread-towels, dish-cloths, 
salt, pepper, spices, etc., spice-mills, egg-beaters, 
strainers, ladles and flesh -fork, bread - toasters, 
knives and forks, spoons, skewers, aprons, a 
kitchen clock, etc. All these articles are indis- 
pensable, and there are a great many other useful 
implements which modern ingenuity has brought 
into use, and which it would be well to introduce 
into a fully-arranged kitchen. 

A good housekeeper should always know that 
everything used in cooking is thoroughly cleaned 
after each meal, and put away in its proper place, 
so that in the darkest night the hand may be 
readily laid on any article needed. A habit of 
this kind is very soon formed, if a regular super- 
vision is exercised for a month or two ; after this 
an occasional inspection will be sufficient. But 
never suffer these intervals to be so long as to en- 
courage your cook to hope your inspections have 
ceased altogether. 

A good sunning is of great service in sweeten- 
ing wooden as well as tin utensils; and it would be 
well, once every week, to move everything out 
into the yard, and there subject it to a thorough 
scouring, washing, and sunning. Besides, the 



20 GENERAL HINT^S AND DIRECTIONS, 

kitchen itself will be much more easily cleaned 
wheu the furniture is out of the way. 

Kitchen-utensils will be quickly ruined if left 
without cleaning from day to day. Woodenware 
will become mouldy and discolored, and if left 
wet, will split; tins will become rusty, and in a 
short time unfit for use. Besides the great incon- 
venience of finding nothing ready when needed, 
the expenses of this department will be needlessly 
increased by this negligence of the mistress. 

OEITEBAL HIITTS AITD DIBEOTIOITS. 

A mistress of a house should inspect every apart- 
ment daily: see that the whole is swept, dusted, 
aired, and divested of cobwebs. 

Pantries and store-rooms should be cleaned out 
at least once a week. Shelves, where china and 
glass are kept, should be carefully dusted. Closet, 
cupboard, and pantry doors should be kept shut 
and locked, so that the cats, rats, and mice be 
excluded. 

Bedrooms should be aired daily; beds at least 
once a fortnight in the sun. 

Chimneys should be swept down in the winter 
daily, before the fires are made, as far as an ordi- 
nary broom will reach, particularly in kitchens; 
and care should be taken to burn them out on 
rainy days. 

Clothes-lines should be taken in every evening; 
the weather will mould and rot them. 

Clothes should be well aired before taken into 
the wardrobe. 



GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS. 21 

Before ironing, clothes should be well sprinkled 
and packed down, so that they be thoroughly and 
regularly dampened throughout. Flat-irons should 
be wiped clean, and set away in a dry place when 
out of use, slightly greased. 

In the month of February, in this latitude, 
every part of your chambers should be thoroughly 
cleansed, the walls whitewashed, the floors scoured, 
the paint well washed with soap and water or soda 
and water. The bedsteads should be taken apart, 
and every portion wiped over with pure cold 
water, and when set up again all the joints and 
cracks should be filled up with turpentine-soap 
mixed with red pepper. 

Tour chambermaid should have a dusting-brush, 
and every morning, when she moves the beds to 
make them up, she should thoroughly brush every 
part of the bedstead. This prevents the lodgment 
of insects. 

Feather beds should be inclosed in cases that 
may be removed and washed at intervals. Mat- 
tresses should be well aired and dusted. 

Basins, pitchers, etc. belonging to chambers 
should be washed daily in hot water and soap, 
then rinsed in pure water. 

A damp cloth should be laid under your iron- 
stand, so as to prevent scorching your ironing- 
sheet. 

Starch should be well boiled, with a bit of sperma- 
ceti or mutton tallow in it; a small bit of gum 
arabic will give it a fine gloss. 

Very little bluing should be used. Soap should 



22 oejseral hists and directions, 

be well rinsed out of clothes, particularly those of 
infants, as it is apt to irritate the skin. 

Flannels should not be passed from hot water to 
cold. This will cause them to shrink. Wash and 
rinse them in milk-warm water, then shake them 
well. 

Pots and all other cooking-utensils should have 
water in them before exposure to the fire, as to 
pour it in after the vessel becomes hot will cause it 
to crack, if of iron or earthenware ; if of tin, it will 
become unsoldered when very hot. 

Custards and puddings should invariably be 
made of new milk, otherwise it will be apt to 
curdle. 

Flour should always be sifted before being used ; 
so should meal, and farinas of all kinds. Flour 
should be dried for cakes. 

Potatoes, apples, etc., designed for puddings or 
pies, should be stewed and passed through a hair- 
sieve or colander. 

Milk should be set in a cool place in summer, 
where it will be safe from dust or insects, but un- 
covered. 

Cream should not be churned till it becomes 
thick, slightly sour, and at a temperature of sixty- 
two; then it will yield its butter quickly, and of the 
best quality. 

Churns should be aired daily, and well scalded 
with boiling water before being used. 

Scald your wooden paddle, and then immediately 
plunge it in cold water, to prevent the butter from 
sticking to it. 



GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS, 23 

Vegetables should be gathered before the sun 
becomes warm. 

Snap-beans should be divested of the strings or 
tough fiber on each side. 

Squashes, turnips, etc. should be cut up before 
boiling. 

Butter should be washed before being used for 
cooking sauces or puddings. 

None but the purest lard should be used in 
cooking. 

Baking-pans should be well greased with sweet 
lard or unsalted butter. 

Apples, pears, peaches, and the like, should be 
pared and cored before cooking. 

Cherries, plums, and grapes should be stoned. 

Almonds should be shelled and blanched before 
they are weighed for cakes or any other culinary 
preparation. 

Cocoanuts should be carefully divested of the 
dark skin before being grated ; lemons and 
oranges, of the seeds before being used. 

Meats, fresh vegetables, and puddings should 
always be put in boiling water, dried vegetables 
or fruitR, in cold water, to boil. 

Salt meats should be soaked in cold or milk- 
warra waiter before being broiled or fried. 

Fish, meats, and poultry should be well and 
carefully washed. 

Rice should be carefully divested of any gravel 
or sand, and washed in several waters before 
boiling. 

Salt should be kept covered in a dry place. 



24 GENERAL IIISTS AMJ DIRECTIONS, 

Pepper and spices should be ground or pounded 
fine ; so should cotfee. 

The reader must not look for the reiterated 
charge, to use clean utensils, in giving receipts. 
This must be presupposed after reading the chap- 
ter on Kitchens. 

When boiling meat, fish, poultry, or any kind 
of vegetables or soups, your pot should be well 
skimmed. In preserving, this operation should 
also be carefully performed. 

Boil okras in a stew-pan to a mucilage before 
adding them to soup, or they will turn it black. 
Your stew-pan should be of porcelain. Iron causes 
the blackness. 

Never leave matches in the way of small chil- 
dren, as they invariably put everything in the 
mouth, and the substance on the end is a deadly 
poison. 

In making your coffee by a French strainer, 
keep it perfectly still while dripping. If you move 
it about it will not be clear. 

When direction is given in this book to use a 
teaspoonful of soda, a level spoonful is meant, with 
all the lumps rubbed out. » 

Lemon-juice is the best acid for combination 
with soda in cookery, and next to it good cider 
vinegar, — three tablespoonfuls to one level tea- 
spoonful of soda. I never use yeast powders, or 
any kind of quackery, because unexplained. 

Keep grape wines long on the lees before bot- 
tling, — say a year : the flavor is finer. 

All blankets and other woolen coverings for 



GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS. 25 

beds should be washed at least once a year. In 
the spriug is the best time. 

Make it an invariable rule to pay your servants 
promptly, and require of them to remunerate you 
as promptly in their services. Thus you deprive 
them of excuse for non-performance of duty. 

Salt should never be added to soups, stews, or 
gravies till just before serving. If added early in 
their preparation, as the substance boils down the 
salt becomes too intense, and there is no remedy 
for it, whereas it may be added at the table if not 
suflScient. 

Dr. Kitchener, a famous English professional 
cook, says, " There never was a good cook that 
was not a taster." 

In jams of all kinds the fruit should be sub- 
jected to the boiling process till reduced one-half 
before the sugar is added, otherwise they are apt 
to be burned. 

Your Tea-kettle. — A good housekeeper will 
always inspect her tea-kettle, as from ^perience 
she must have discovered that most servants are 
extremely careless and indifferent to the care of 
this article in household economy. Water is very 
apt to be left in the kettle at night, and in the morn- 
ing it is often filled for breakfast without previously 
emptying and rinsing it. Of course there are 
many worthy exceptions in servants, still it is very 
necessary '^occasionally to attend to this important 
matter, even with the most trustworthy ; and never 
should you omit to give instructions in this particu- 

3 



26 GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS. 

lar when a new cook or dining-roora servant 13 
introduced into the household. 

Tea-kettles should be emptied and washed out 
with soap and water after using, as regularly as 
the cups and saucers are washed. They should be 
wiped dry and turned up open, that no rust may 
form inside. When to be used, they should be 
rinsed out with cold water at the pump or icell^ 
filled, and placed over a clear tire to boil. 

Water that has been standing in the house is not 
fit to be used for coffee or tea. Unwholesome 
gases are apt to be imbibed from the air in which 
persons have been breathing for even an hour. 
Standing water is unwholesome to drink; it should 
be often replaced with fresh. 

Cellars. — Examine your cellars frequently at all 
seasons, especially in spring, when vegetables are 
sprouting and decaying. The effluvia from de- 
composing vegetable matter will engender disease. 
Have everything of the kind removed, with all 
mouldy articles, boxes, barrels, tubs, especially 
such as have contained vegetables, pickles, either 
of meats or vegetables, fish or spirits, vinegar, 
wines, or decaying matter of any kind. Leave the 
doors and windows open frequently for airing; 
whitewash at least once a year, and fumigate, if 
any disagreeable odors be present, with chloride of 
lime. Attention to such matters may save the 
lives of your family. Surely worth the pains. 
Typhoid fevers, cholera, etc. are engendered in 
this way. 

Kever suffer afoul drain, gutter, or sink to have 



GEXERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS, 27 

place iu yoar establishment If you find it neces- 
sary to have a sink in your kitchen for carrying 
off water, take care it is scalded out every day with 
hot lye or soapsuds. 

Manure piles should be placed as far as possible 
from the house and covered with charcoal. 

In the autumn, when the leaves become dry and 
fall from the trees around your house, have them 
gathered but of your yards and put away in some 
convenient place, to cover your potato beds in the 
spring. They make excellent manure, too. But 
Having deprived your trees of this natural ferti- 
lizer, take care to sprinkle around them a good 
Supply of pulverized manure or guano. Especially 
on your grass-plots should you do this. 

When wood is cut, have all the chips of any 
size picked up and put away for kindling fires, 
leaving the small ones to become manure for your 
garden. These form a very superior fertilizer, 
especially for flowers. 

Clbanino House. — In February, at the South, 
on some bright day, have all your beds moved out 
into the sun, shaken, dusted, and searched well. 
Search in every seam and corner ; and while the 
beds are sunning, search over all your bedsteads. 
Wipe them over with cold soapsuds, and carefully 
stop every crack, seam, and screw-hole with hard 
turpentine soap, in which you have mingled pep- 
per or a little sulphur. 

This is rather too early for your general house- 
cleaning, but for the above-mentioned purpose it 
is the best, as vermin begin to lose their torpor 



28 GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS. 

about this time, and bestir themselves to prepare 
for a progeny. Eggs are laid in this month, and 
in twenty- four hours you may be overrun with this 
most disgusting nuisance. 

Whitewashing. — About the first of May you 
may take up your carpets, whitewash your walls 
and ceilings, wash your windows and paint. 

Get a bushel of unslacked lime, slack it in a 
barrel with boiling water, then add about a gallon 
of flour-paste, and a little bluing, to improve .the 
whiteness. This will be sufficient for your whole 
house. Add water till it is of a proper consistency. 
Your barrel will be nearly full. Cover it close till 
ready for use. An old brush, half-worn out, will^ 
make the smoothest walls. Take care to shake 
oft' all the superfluous wash before applying the 
brush to the walls, otherwise you will waste your 
material, and unnecessarily increase your labor in 
divesting the floors and paint of the whitewash 
falling from the brush. Begin up-stairs, do one 
room at a time, and do not sleep in the rooms 
on the night after they have been whitewashed. 

Washing Paint and Windows. — Wash your 
paint with weak soda-water; rinse it with clear 
water immediately, or it will take oft' too much of 
the paint. 

Wash your windows in the same way, and wipe 
them dry with old newspapers. If they are dis- 
colored, use a little whiting, and carefully wipe it 
all off, when dry, with newspapers. This leaves no 
lint. 

Thb Lye-stand. — Insist on all your wood-ashes 



GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS, 29 

being saved to make the family soap. It is a great 
item in the economy of housekeeping. Let your 
servants understand at once that you will not buy 
soap when there are abundant materials at home 
for its manufacture. 

Any ordinary carpenter can make you a lye- 
stand ; and if you are so situated that there is not 
one at hand, a common cask or barrel, placed on a 
form and raised about three feet from the ground, 
will answer very well. Let the two front legs of the 
stand be a little lower than the two behind, that 
the lye may drip the better. Have a hole bored 
with an auger in the bottom of the cask near the 
front, and fit in it a plug. When this is all ready, 
throw a gallon of lime on the bottom of the barrel 
or cask, fill it with new ashes, dampen them 
slightly, and suffer them so to remain for three 
weeks; then pour a plentiful supply of boiling 
water on the ashes, draw off tbe lye, and make 
your soap by the receipts in this book. 

Bathing. — ^Nothing is more conducive to health 
than cleanliness; nothing more comforting and 
delightful than ample bathing conveniences. Be 
sure and provide well for yourself and family in 
this department. 

Cold bathing I practice myself, winter and sum- 
mer, and never have in one instance taken cold 
from the practice. - If you cannot bear an immer- 
sion-bath, «ponge all over with a rapid motion, and 
rub dry with a coarse towel. This will keep the 
pores of the skin in a healthy state, while your 
frame* will be greatly invigorated. At any rate, 

3* 



80 GENERAL HINTS AND DIRECTIONS. 

bathe frequently, even though the peculiar tempera- 
ment of your system will not favor the enjoyment 
of cold water, — use it in a tepid state. It is a passing 
wonder to me that any should deny themselves this 
great luxury, which costs nothing but a little profit- 
able exertion. 

Cleanliness is, without doubt, the greatest pre- 
servative to health yet known to mortals, not only 
the introduction of pure air into the lungs by 
breathing, but the resolute and constant avoid- 
ance of a contact with impurity either of body or 
mind, and it is very rarely found that the scrupu- 
lously clean in body are unclean in spirit. To 
wash the body daily in pure water creates an 
aversion to moral unclean ness. The blessed pre- 
cept of the divine Sermon on the Mount is ever 
suggested to the mind in this daily practice, — 
"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God." Therefore we are the more inclined to lift 
up *' clean hands and a pure heart" to our Maker. 
On the other hand, a person who is content with 
an unclean body will not be averse to the unclean- 
ness of sin. 



THE LAUNDRY. 31 



THE LAUNDEY. 

This department should be supplied with ample 
and suitable conveniences for the work in hand, 
such as a substantial ironing-table, with a drawer 
in which to put away, when out of use, the ironing- 
cloths, rings, crimping- irons, and clothes-pins. The 
flat-irons should be slightly greased, and placed on 
a shelf over the ironing-table. 

There should be a skirt-board, and a low, long 
table for the tubs while the washing is going on; 
it should be long enough to hold three tubs, as 
clothes after washing and boiling should always 
pass through three rinsing waters, the last having 
a slight tinge of bluing. 

There should be at least six flat-irons, two rings, 
andacrimping-iron, two dozen clothes-pins, and an 
ample line on which to hang the clothes. This 
very necessary article should be taken due care of, 
and so managed as to be easily taken within-doors 
as soon as the clothes are removed, as the night 
dews and the rain will rot it in a very short time if 
left exposed to their influence. A good and ample 
clothes-line will cost a dollar, or at least seventy- 
five cents; and even twenty-five cents saved in 
clothes-lines, and many other items of house ex- 
penses, will amount to no inconsiderable sum in 
the course of twelve months, to distribute, if you 
please, among the needy of the parish, thus securing 
their prayers for your prosperity, and an addition 
to your substantial treasures in the time to come. 



32 THE LAUNDRY, 

Six tubs, a large clothes-basket, a brass kettle 
for boiling starch, an ironing-sheet and blanket, 
with two coarse cloths for straining starch, a cop- 
per kettle for boiling clothes, a pair of tongs and 
a shovel, a good and ample clothes-horse, compose 
the most necessary implements in eflFecting the 
work of the laundry satisfactorily. 

In making your starch, take care that it is 
thoroughly boiled, otherwise it will not iron 
smoothly or nicely. Drop in a small bit of sper- 
maceti or mutton tallow while boiling. This will 
cause it to iron smoothly, and give an agreeable 
gloss to the surface of the article ironed. 

Servants have generally little idea of propor- 
tion, and in bluing clothes they seem to have a 
propensity to color too highly. This should be 
restricted, as it deprives the clothes of that snowy 
appearance, which is their greatest beauty. 

Table- cloths, pillow -cases, table-napkins, and 
under-clothes of all kinds should have but very 
little starch. This, too, is a matter necessary to be 
attended to, as servants have little judgment gen- 
erally in starching clothes. Shirt-collars, cutis, 
and bosoms to shirts, frills, dresses, and caps, of 
course req'uire more starch. Towels, sheets, and 
the like should be slightly blued, but not starched. 

I have found by personal experience that the 
following is far the best mode of washing clothes. 
The labor is much less than in the usual mode, 
the clothes are subject to less wear and tear, much 
time is saved, and I earnestly recommend it to 
every young housekeeper. It is of the utmost im- 



THE LAUNDRY. 83 

portance to begin right, for then you are not in 
danger of becoming prejudiced in favor of an un- 
certain or wrong way. 

Slack five (6) pounds, of best lime with five 
pounds of sal soda in two gallons of boiling 
water; let it settle, and strain the liquor into a 
large jug; then pour on the lime and soda two 
gallons more of water, stirring it well ; allow it to 
settle again, and strain as before, adding this liquor 
also to the jug, or jugs if necessary. To this mix- 
ture add a pint of spirits of turpentine and an 
ounce of sal ammoniac. Stop it up close. 

On Monday morning sort your clothes. Have 
ready three large tubs ; then take a quart of good 
soft soap (or dissolved hard soap); add to this 
twelve tablespoonfuls of the mixture from the jug, 
as above prepared. Mix it well with the soap, and 
put into the three tubs half a pint of the soap for 
each ; tben fill the tubs tw»o-thirds with lukewarm 
water; with your hand or a spoon mix the soap 
well with the water; after which put in your 
clothes to soak half an hour. Put the remaining 
half pint of soap into your boiling-kettle. While 
the white clothes are soaking, make your starch, 
and wash your flannels and colored clothes. Flan- 
nels should be washed out quickly in warm soap- 
suds, and rinsed in water of the same temperature, 
otherwise they will be sure to shrink. Shake them 
out quickly, and hang them out to dry. Don^t 
wring them. This will be sure to shrink them. 

Have ready three tubs on your long table near 
your boiling-kettle, each nearly full of clean water, 



34 TnE LAUNDRY. 

the last tinged slightly with bluing. Having your 
starch-tub conveniently at hand, now rub the collars 
and wristbands of the shirts, the hems of skirts, 
and the feet of stockings, no more; then put the 
clothes in the boiler, as many as it will hold, 
slightly wringing them. While they are boiling, 
finish washing and hanging out your colored 
clothes, or strain your starch. As soon as these 
have boiled, remove them to the nearest rinsing- 
tub, and put more into the boiler. Then rinse 
in the three waters, starch, and hang out the boiled 
clothes, and proceed with the rest of the clothes in 
the same way till the whole are hung out. 

All this may be done in the course of the morn- 
ing, and the colored clothes and flannels may easily 
be ironed in the same afternoon. In this way time, 
labor, soap, and water may be greatly saved, be- 
sides fatigue and pains from long standing, rub- 
bing, and stooping over the wash-tub. Besides, 
your clothes will be saved from the certain wear 
and tear of the wash-board. 

The same water which soaked and boiled the 
mistress's clothes will do the same for those of 
the servants. 

Sprinkling. — Clothes should be sprinkled suf- 
ficiently to dampen them throughout, then folded 
by a thread, rolled up tightly, and laid in the 
clothes-basket, closely packed, so as to preserve 
the dampness throughout the whole mass. Clothes 
should be covered closely from the air, too. At 
least an hour is necessary for them to remain thus 
till ironed. 



THE LAUNDRY, 35 

Clothes should never be dampened the night 
before ironing, especially in summer, for fear of 
mildew, which is the most difficult of all stains to 
remove. In winter this might answer a good pur- 
pose, provided the clothes be placed out of the 
danger of freezing. 

In summer, clothes should not be dampened in 
too large a quantity to iron in one day ; and if this 
is ever done, those remaining unironed should be 
shaken out, and hung up to dry, as otherwise they 
will be sure to become mildewed before morning. 
Clothes, to be well ironed, should be evenly and 
thoroughly dampened^ — but, observe, merely damp- 
ened, not wet. Extremes of all kinds are bad, and 
in this case extremely troublesome, — consuming 
much time, and very often with bad eflect to the 
articles so managed. At the same time, if clothes 
are only partially dampened, or left dry in spots, 
they will look very badly after being ironed. 

Ironing. — After placing your ironing- blanket 
and sheet on the table, take care to place a coarse 
piece of cloth, wet^ tinder your ironing-ring before 
commencing, to prevent scorching your sheet and 
blanket; and when it becomes dry wet it again. 
Unfold, and lay your article before you by a 
thread, passing the iron over it in the same way. 
Always iron by a thread. Your clothes will look 
much better. 

Place your clothes-horse in the air, or near the 
fire, that the clothes may be dried rapidly; and as 
soon as dry remove them, so as to make room for 
others. Never phice a double layer of ironed 



36 TUB LAUNDRY, 

clothes on your horse, — it gives ttiem a tumbled 
look, they are apt to remain damp, and if you 
have not a conscientious and thoughtful laundry- 
maid, you are in danger of having the clothes 
phiced in the wardrobe in a damp state. This 
would endanger your health and the health of 
your family. If you are not so fortunate as to 
have a careful person in this department, attend to 
the airing of your clothes yourself. 

Your laundry-maid should be instructed to sort 
the clothes (separating those which require mend- 
ing) before placing them in the wardrobe. Those 
requiring repair should be brought to your notice 
or that of your seamstress. 

Especially your husband's shirts should never 
be put away without buttons, his drawers with- 
out strings, or his stockings with holes. Before 
you have been long married you will find this one 
of the greatest annoyances a man can be subjected 
to. Would it not be far better to be careful and 
please him in this matter than to endanger the har- 
mony which should subsist in married life ? Who 
can tell what a spirit of discord may be waked up 
by the absence of a button ? Be wise in time. 

Never suffer your laundry-maid to put away un- 
ironed articles till the next week. Insist on having 
everything brought in and counted. Of course you 
counted them before giving them out. 

If the washing w^as all done in one day, two days 
are quite sufficient for the ironing; and the clothes 
should be brought in on Thursday morning, having 
been well aired through Wednesday night. 



/^ 



THE LAUNDRY. 87 

As soon as all the ironing is done, ajid the clothes 
taken out of the laundry, have all the tubs scoured, 
sunned, and turned up in a convenient place till 
required again. Never suffer washing-suds to re- 
main in them, as this causes a disagreeable odor, 
is uncleanly, and besides will injure your tubs. 

In order to render clothes fire-proof, mix 25 
parts tungstate of soda and 4 parts phosphate of 
soda; then dissolve them in 100 parts water. 
Starch your clothes first, then immerse them in 
the above solution ; after which dry and iron 
them. Those you do not wish to starch, dip in 
the solution also. It will be well to use this 
solution for children's clothes, as they have not 
generally the precaution of older persons, and 
often endanger themselves by approaching too 
near the fire. 

Wet your table-cloths, napkins, etc., also chil- 
dren's clothes, with alcohol, after eating fruits of 
any kind, before putting them in the wash, and 
you will find them stainless when they come in. 

If salt is put immediately on the table-cloth, 
when wine or other substance likely to stain is 
spilled on it, there will be no fear of its remaining. 

Ink stains may be removed from clothes by 
soaking them in oxalic water. Be careful of this 
water, as it is a deadly poison. Throw it out im- 
mediately after it has had its effect. Never leave 
it in the way of children, or even dumb animals. 



88 THE DAIRY. 



THE DAISY. 

A dairy should be placed near a running stream, 
or a well or pump. It should be under the shade 
of trees, in a situation where the fresh air is con- 
stantly passing through it. It should not be sur- 
rounded by other buildings. 

Your dairy should contain a number of shelves, 
so constructed that water may flow over them, and 
under the pans of milk in warm weather. Fresh 
water should be supplied at least three times a 
day, if you cannot so arrange your dairy as to have 
running water always passing over the shelves. 

These shelves should be scalded at least every 
two days, and thoroughly scoured once a week. 
If milk is spilled on them, immediately remove it, 
as if left it will create a disagreeable taste and odor 
in the milk and butter. 

All the utensils used in your dairy should be 
scalded, scoured, and sunned every day if possible. 

Your milk should be taken immediately from 
the cows to the dairy, and there strained into shal- 
low pans of china, glass, earthenware, or metal. 
Wooden vessels should never be used. Cool your 
pans with fresh. water before straining the milk 
into them. 

As soon as the milk is strained into the pans, 
the milk-pail, strainer, and dipper should be im- 
mediately washed with fresh cold water, then 
scalded and scoured with hot soap and water, well 



THE DAIRY. 89 

rinsed with cold water, wiped dry, and placed on a 
convenient shelf in the sun, if the weather is fine, 
or if otherwise, on a high shelf in the dairy. 

Churning in Summer. — ^Keep your milk and 
cream as cool as possible, and churn slowly. 

Take especial care to wash your butter well, and 
keep it cool, in a dry place, unless you have ice ; 
in that case, it will be in less danger of mould or 
disagreeable odors of any kind. 

Skim your morning's milk in the evening in 
summer; add the cream to the night's milking 
when you wish to churn ; let it stand till morning, 
and churn before sunrise. * 

When you propose churning in winter, scald 
your churn with boiling water; pour out the 
water, and immediately pour in your cream, with 
about a pint of butter-milk from your previous 
churning, and a pan or two of new milk, accord- 
ing to the size of your churn. Tour churn should 
never be more than half- full. Set your churn near 
the fire, but not so near as to become hot ; it should 
be only moderately warm. Turn it frequently. " 

When the cream has become firm, or bonny- 
clabber, it is ready for churning. Scald your 
dasher and top; then immerse them in cold water, 
to prevent the butter from sticking to them, and 
churn somewhat rapidly till the butter is coming, 
then churn slowly to gather it. 

If the temperature is sixty or sixty-five, the but- 
ter will come in twenty minutes, or sometimes in 
less time. You will save much time by attending 
to this matter. 



40 THE DAIRY. 

As soon as the butter and butter-milk are re- 
moved from the churn, it should be washed 
thoroughly with warm soapsuds, then rinsed 
with cold water, in which you have mingled a 
small cup of lye or soda water. Then rinse with 
fresh water, and, after wiping it dry, place it in 
the sun, or on a dry shelf in your dairy, as the 
case may be. 

Wash your butter with tepid water, press all the 
water out, and salt it to your taste; add to the salt 
a very little pounded white sugar. 

Scald your wooden bowl and paddle ; then dip 
them in cold water, before washing and salting your 
butter. Then make it into cakes, and print it or 
cross it over with your paddle. Unless you have a 
very large dairy, and a great quantity of butter, I 
would not recommend using the hands to wash 
and press butter. In that case I suppose it is more 
convenient, though not so neat as the former mode. 

If you are not so situated as to have a regular 
dairy and dairy-maid, choose the coolest place in 
your culinary departments to keep your milk and 
butter in. Let it be a dry place also ; dampness 
will cause mould. In winter choose a moderately 
warm place. 

If you have a veranda at the rear of your house, 
and a perforated tin safe, this is a good place in 
summer for your milk, though a refrigerator, with 
ice, would be better still. 

Cheese. — Keep four gallons of milk twenty-four 
hours, then skim it, and add to the cream three 
gallons of new milk. Put it in a kettle and bring 



TEE DAIRY, 41 

it to a boiling heat. Then add a teaspoonful of 
rennet-brandy, when the curds will separate from 
the whey in ten minutes. Drain off the whey, add 
a teaspoonful of salt and one of powdered loaf- 
sugar. Pack your curds down smoothly in a hoop, 
placed on a clean board; cover it with a board 
a little smaller than the hoop, and place a weight 
on it. Let it remain twenty-four hours, take it 
out, rub it over with a mixture of flour and butter, 
then place it in the sun to dry. Turn it frequently. 
A day will be sufficient. Then lay your cheese on 
a shelf in your dairy, when the air will complete 
the drying. 

Rennet. — Take the stomach or maw of a calf 
two or three days old.* Empty it, wipe it dry, and 
salt it well ; then hang it up to dry. Keep it in 
this state ten or twelve months; then cut it up in 
small pieces, and, after placing it in a wide-mouthed 
bottle, with the rind and juice of a lemon, a little 
mace and sugar, fill the bottle with good brandy. 
A teaspoonful of this brandy will be sufficient for 
seven or eight gallons of milk, and it should be a 
small teaspoonful. 

To prevent a cow from milking herself, fasten 
leather straps around her head and muzzle in the 
form of an ordinary bridle, with similar straps 
leading from the muzzle to a leather band around 
the body (each side) just over the shoulder, where 

* If you cannot procure so young a calf, one of a month old 
will do ; but the stomach should be washed from the first salting, 
and saUed the second time before drying. It should be washed 
slightly. 



42 THE DAIRY. 

there should be a buckle to fasten it to the band. 
Buckles are necessary, as the straps are apt to 




stretch. These straps should be loose enough for 
the cow to graze, but just barely so. 

This apparatus is perfectly effectual, as in the 
attempt to turn the head either side the opposite 
strap will prevent the cow from effecting her ob- 
ject. This is the most comfortable of any mode yet 
known to effect this object. 

Feed your cows well, if you would have them 
give you a bountiful supply of milk. Give them 
(each) three times a day a bucket of warm water, 
with a little salt, and two quarts of bran or meal, 
besides always keeping by them as much hay or fod- 
der as they will eat. Boiled peas and cotton seed 
are excellent for food if bran is not convenient; but 
three buckets of the preparation above mentioned 
should be given daily, or what is an equivalent. 

Warm water is necessary in winter, as cows 
drink very little cold water, and water is absolutely 
necessary to produce milk, — a bucket four times 
a day. 

Curry your cows daily, and house them at night, 



THE DAIRY. 48 

particularly in cold or rainy weather. Calves also 
should be kept under cover and well fed. Give them 
at least half the mother's milk till they learn to 
eat ; and as gradually as they eat more heartily, 
you may lessen their portion of milk. Some per- 
sons teach their calves to drink skimmed milk. 

The best mode of managing a calf is to take 
it immediately as it is calved from the cow and 
place it in a separate inclosure; then milk the 
cow and take the milk to the calf. Now put your 
hand under the surface of the milk, and raising 
the three first fingers, thrust them into the mouth 
of the calf. As soon as it tastes the milk it will 
begin to suck the fingers. It will continue to do 
this as long as there is any milk for it. After a 
few times you may lower the fingers till thfe mouth 
of the calf enters the milk ; it will thus learn to 
drink in a very short time. 

Take care that your cow is always thoroughly 
milked. If the udder is hard or swollen, wash it 
two or three times a day in greasy warm water. 
Indeed, if a cow's udder is swollen and hard before 
the calf arrives, she ought to be milked every day, 
and the udder rubbed well with the hand, using 
warm water, otherwise it will become very trouble- 
some when the flow of milk takes place after the 
calving. And as soon as the calving is completed 
the cow should have a good pail of bran and warm 
water. If the bran is browned a little it will be 
the better. 

Both cow and calf should be kept under cover 
in winter, and, indeed, in all wet or windy days. 



44 '^^^ VA1H1\ 

Some persons keep their milch cows tied up to the 
manger always. I consider this a cruel custom, as 
every creature of a beneficent God should have 
liberty to enjoy itself in its own way, and this 
cannot be in " durance vile/' Besides, cows as 
well as the human species require exercise in 
furtherance of a healthy digestion of food. 

Do not suffer your young calf to remain with 
the cow, even before the milk becomes good, for 
all experience shows that if all the milk is not 
drawn entirely from the animal it causes it to de- 
crease in quality. The calf takes it at irregular 
intervals, as it wishes, often leaving much in the 
udder, especially when the cow gives a great yield 
of milk. The best way is to keep the calf from the 
cow altogether; but if this is not preferred, milk 
the cow two or three times a day, always before 
allowing the calf to take his share; this will 
cause it to draw off every drop of the milk: when 
immediately separate them. I have no doubt that 
cows have the power of withholding their milk. 
This they never do but for their calf If the calf 
is never allowed to touch the udder, the cow will 
never hold up her milk. 

Cows should be dealt with very gently and 
kindly, and if this is done from the first, they are 
never guilty of tricks. 

If your cow suffers with colic from overeating, 
rub the stomach and bowels with spirits of turpen- 
tine. It will afford almost instant relief. If she 
has diarrhoea, give parched bran, never Indian 
meal. 



POULTRY, 46 



POULTET. 

Your fowl-house should be well ventilated, and 
supplied with abundant roosting-poles. The nests 
should be supplied with clean straw, separated and 
situated out of the way of the roosts. 

Your fowl-house should be swept clean once a 
week at least, and sprinkled with sand, charcoal, 
and lime. It should be fumigated at least once in 
three weeks with sulphur and tobacco to destroy 
the vermin. Your water-troughs should be emptied 
daily, and filled with fresh water. Eggs from in- 
sects, which abound in foul water, often are taken 
up into the mouth and nostrils of chickens, pass 
into the windpipes and produce worms, which 
cause the gapes, and so kill the chickens. 

Young turkeys, geese, ducks, and chickens re- 
quire animal food, — without it they are apt to be 
weak and sickly. Mix a hard-boiled egg and a 
little red pepper in the dough with which you feed 
tbem. Feed them in the morning and at noon; 
never near night, as chickens suffer sometimes with 
dyspepsia from want of exercise after eating ; the 
dough becomes sour on the stomach, and causes 
the craw to swell, which often kills them. 

Have a hole cut in your hen-house door just 
large enough for the hens to enter ; but keep the 
door locked that the eggs may be safe. If you in- 
tend to rear chickens, take the eggs out of the 
nests every day, — all but the nest-egg, — and keep 



46 POULTRY. 

them in a warm place in winter, and a cool place 
in summer. Turn them daily, and be careful not 
to shake them. 

When a hen sits on a nest steadily for twenty- 
four hours, pecks at you, and ruffles up her fea- 
thers when you touch her, then you may safely put 
the eggs under her for sitting; but if she leaves 
the nest on your approach, do not trust your egg^ 
under her, as she is not in earnest, and the eggs 
will be spoiled. 

Do not trouble your hen while she is hatching, — 
wait till she voluntarily leaves her nest with all 
her brood; then transfer her to a convenient little 
coop, all to herself^ in some quiet, grassy nook, 
where her chickens can run about enjoying them- 
selves, returning at their pleasure to her maternal 
care. Keep a plate or pan of clean water near 
by, both for mother and chickens. In this way 
you will scarcely lose a chicken. 

Turkeys, geese, and ducks may be dealt with in 
the same way till half-grown. 

Such coops should always have bars in front, 
open enough for the young to go out and in ; btit 
there should be a board the full size of the front of 
the coop to let down at night and in bad weather. 
This door should not be raised in the morning till 
the dew is off the grass, nor in rainy weather. 

Feed your grown fowls of every kind once a day 
well. Grain is best and most convenient. Give 
them in the morning as much as they will eat. 
This will be amply sufficient. If they are indus- 
trious they will find plenty of animal food during 



POULTRY. 47 

the day for themselves in the form of bugs and 
other insects. 

To Fatten Poultry. — Have a light coop, with- 
out a floor, that your cook can easily move about. 
Have it sufficiently large to contain eight or ten 
fowls without crowding them. Feed them twice a 
day plentifully with warm mush. This, with clean 
water and fresh gravel every day, will fatten them 
well in six or eight days. 

Before you kill the last pair, put in six or eight 
more fowls, and proceed as before with them. 
Move the coop to a clean place every day. Fowls, 
turkeys, geese, or ducks may be thus dealt with to 
advantage. 

Spring chickens should not be killed till fully 
as large as partridges, and should be very fat. 
Broil them nicely, and butter them plentifully, or 
make of them a rich chicken-pie. 

If you ever find it necessary to kill an old tough 
fowl, give it a spoonful of sharp vinegar half an 
hour before you kill it. Keep it as long as the 
weather will allow, and then parboil it before 
roasting. Another way is to cover the fowl (after 
killing and cleaning it) with fig leaves for twenty- 
four hoars. 

" It is said to be a fixed fact that old women who 
live in cottages know best how to rear chickens. 
They are more successful; and this may be traced 
to the fact that they keep but few fowls, and these 
are allowed to run in the house, to roll in the 
ashes, to approach the fire, to pick up crumbs, and 
are nursed with care and indulgence. By warmth 



48 THE GARDEN. 

and judicious feeding a hen may be made to lay 
far more and richer eggs than she otherwise 
would." 

Wheat and Indian corn are the best grains for 
fowls. Occasionally a little refuse meat of any kind 
will improve them; also milk in which Indian 
meal or scraps of wheaten bread are mingled. 
When drooping, give a little sulphur and red 
pepper in their food. 

THE GAEDEN. 

The garden may be either, strictly speaking, a 
pleasure-garden to gratify the eye, or a kitchen- 
garden to furnish the table with vegetables. The 
former may to a certain extent be connected with 
the latter, uniting the agreeable with the useful, 
but should then be considered subordinate. 

The following directions are principally for the 
kitchen-garden, and as its object is to produce an 
abundant supply of desirable vegetables on a limited 
space, to cultivate it advantageously it is necessary 
to attend to the following particulars: 

1. The site or exposure of the garden. 

2. The soil. 

3. The form. 

4. Manuring. 

5. Tillage. 

6. Occupation by different crops, either together 
or in immediate succession. 

1. The site, or rather the exposure of the garden, 
should be as nearly ^s possible to the south or 



THE GARDEN. 49 

southeast, and as it is important to have the ground 
as level as possible, if the spot selected should 
naturally slope, as, for instance, on a hillside, it 
should be terraced, that is, thrown up into level 
beds, one above the other, taking care to plant the 
sloping boundaries of eacK terrace with grass or 
clover, or, if your garden is not of ample dimen- 
sions, with strawberry-vines, thus saving your beds 
for other purposes. This will not only protect 
your beds from washing in heavy rains, but will 
be very ornamental. 

2. The soil should be wliat is termed a sandy 
loam, that is, a due admixture of clay, sand, and 
vegetable matter. The character of the soil, how- 
ever, is best determined for the beginner by asking 
the advice of persons skilled in such matters, or 
by taking some one of the popular horticultural 
publications, which may be obtained at the store 
of Orange Judd & Co., 245 Broadway, New York. 
Your garden should be free of stones; if there 
originally, they should be gathered up and re- 
moved. If your soil is sandy, improve it by the 
addition of clay ; if clayey, by the addition of sand. 

3. The best form for a kitchen-garden is a 
square ; so should the divisions be. 

4. Manuring should be done chiefly in the 
autumn, winter, or early spring months. If ma- 
nures are applied in summer months, they should 
be either well decomposed or in a liquid state, as 
with guano or manure from the hen-house or 
dove-cot. 

If manures are judiciously applied, a garden can 

5 



50 ^^^ GARDEN. 

hardly have too much, especially iu the culture of 
cauliflowers, cabbages, or Irish potatoes. An ex- 
cellent manure for the last is wood-ashes, whether 
lixiviated or not, especially the latter, since the 
tuber of the potato contains a great deal of potash. 
For roots, as beets, clirrots, etc., coarse manures 
should not be used. Guano and other condensed 
fertilizers may be employed, if applied in a furrow 
and covered over; the seed being drilled in above. 
6. Tillage. If the garden is to be plowed, it 
should be done as deeply as the plow will pene- 
trate, and the nature of the soil permit. If it is to 
be dug, the best implement for the purpose is a 
four-pronged steel garden fork. 

6. For the simultaneous growth, or for the suc- 
cession of crops, it is necessary to determine before- 
hand what vegetables are chiefly desired, and the 
places in the garden they are intended to occupy, 
what others with least interference may be planted 
with them, and what to succeed them. As, for 
instance, suppose peas are required ; these are best 
sown in double rows, of from eight to ten inches 
apart; these double rows being from three to four 
feet apart, according as the pea planted is a low or 
tall grower. In the intervals may be sown early 
radishes or lettuce, or there may be planted early 
cabbages from the sowing of the previous autumn. 
The peas may be succeeded by winter cabbages or 
celery. The best peas for cultivation are Lan- 
dreth's or Buist's extra early, and the Eugenie. 

Early potatoes may be succeeded by turnips or 
Winningstadt cabbages. 



THE GARDEN. 51 

The cultivatiou of celery is a very suitable prep- 
aration of the soil for the root crop, as beets, 
carrots, parsnips, or salsify. 

For the advantageous cultivation of the garden, 
the following maxims among others should be 
well remembered and acted upon: "A stitch in 
time saves nine," or, in other worda, " that weeds 
just making their appearance are a hundred times 
more easily eradicated than if suffered to grow to 
any size;" "That any plant of any kind out of 
place is a weed ;'* " That one year's seeding makes 
a seven years' weeding." No weed, therefore, 
should ever be allowed to go to seed. A clean 
garden is not only gratifying to the eye, but is 
absolutely necessary to profitable cultivation. 

For saving seed- always select the best plants, 
generally the earliest; and if you wish to have 
your seed in perfection, select from these chosen 
plants the best stems, branches, or pods. For in- 
stance, for seed peas, set apart the most promising 
row or rows, removing from these all the small 
and late formed pods, anS when those left behind 
are thoroughly dried, put them in dry bottles, and 
cork them tighty to destroy the eggs of the curculio 
deposited in them. 

Gather all your seed of every kind in dry 
weather, then, having dried them well and thor- 
oughly in the shade, put them up in bottles or 
paper-bags, or close drawers, safe from the mice 
or insects. 

To Cultivate Asparagus. — Cover the whole 
space intended to be occupied by asparagus with 



52 THE GARDEN, 

at least six or eight inches of strong stable manure, 
well mixed with wood-ashes and lime, then lay oft* 
the beds according to the size of the ground pre- 
pared for asparagus, allowing two feet for each 
walk between the beds, throwing up the rich earth 
from the walks on the beds. After this it would 
be advisable, before planting, to suffer the beds to 
remain a short time to settle, and then to be forked 
over with a four-pronged garden* fork, and raked 
level. 

The planting of these beds may be done either 
with seed or plants one or two years old. If you 
sow with seeds, soak them one or two days in tepid 
water, and plant them at a depth of three or four 
inches, and at a distance of sixteen or eighteen 
inches apart, one seed in each place. Sow thinly 
in a rich spot a number of seeds, to supply with 
plants any deficiency from seed not germinating 
in the beds. After this every fifty feet should be 
sown with at least a gallon of salt. 

Every autumn the asparagus -beds should be 
covered with six or eight inches of coarse stable 
manure, and this forked in carefully in the spring. 
With this treatment you may begin to cut your 
asparagus a little in the second year. 

Celery. — Sow the seed early in the spring in 
moist, rich ground. When the plants are from 
four to six inches high, transplant in trenches four 
inches deep and nine wide, three feet from trench 
to trench. Set the plants six inches apart in the 
row. The soil for celery can scarcely be too rich 
in manure of the proper description ; it should be 



THE GARDEN. 58 

well decayed, and not of a drying nature. In dry 
weather a good supply of water or soapsuds is 
essential. The latter the best material that can be 
used. Some cultivators earth up at intervals, while 
others permit the plants to attain their full growth, 
and earth up all at once, which is best. About the 
first of October the earthing up may proceed with- 
out injury; but let it be done firmly and evenly 
and on a sloping direction from the base to nearly 
the top of the leaves. Should the weather become 
very severe, dry leaves or straw should be spread 
over the plants. — Buisfs Almanac. 

But an experienced and celebrated gardener has 
given me the following directions for a celery-bed, 
and as I know his celery is excellent, I shall state 
his plan : 

Suppose you have a bed fifty feet square ; set it 
off" in five feet divisions, two and a half feet from 
the outer edges This will contain nine divisions, 
five for celery ; excavate the first, third, fifth, and 
seventh for celery. 

Have a plank ten or eleven inches wide and five 
feet long. Lay it across the bed, let it have notches 
cut on the side seven inches apart, the outer notches 
nine inches from the edges of the plank. Set your 







; TRENCH 



plants under the notches, and mark the width of 
the plank on the ground before you move further, 

5* 



54 TUB GARDEN. 

then move the plank its width, planting as you go, 
in rows ten to eleven inches apart, and the plants 
seven inches apart in the rows, till the whole 
trench is planted. This is most convenient, as 
'you stand on the board while planting the celery, 
and avoid trampling the bed. Have a stick to 
make the holes to set the plants in. 

As this is not a very severely cold climate, the 
celery is usually left in the trench till needed. In 
colder climates it is usually taken up and buried in 
cellars with loose earth. 

Cauliflowers. — To grow the cauliflower to per- 
fection, prepare a bed of light, rich soil, two feet 
deep, and one-third of it to be composed of well- 
decomposed manure. Select an open exposure, 
sheltered from the northwest. The whole to be 
surrounded with a close frame, and covered with 
glass shutters. It should be prepared about the 
first of October. Allow the beds two weeks to 
settle before planting. Lift the plants carefully 
from the seed-bed, and plant them in the frame, 
eighteen inches apart, each way. Give a gentle 
watering to the plants ; and press the earth down 
firmly. Between each of these plants lettuce may 
be planted, which will head during the winter or 
early spring, before the cauliflower^ form any size. 
Should the flowers open more rapidly than desired, 
they can be retarded by closing the leaves over 
them. Best varieties are the Half-early Paris, 
Early Erfurt, and Walcheren. — Buisfs Almanac. 

Cold-frames and Hot-beds. — A frame of boards, 
six feet long and five wide, facing the south, in a 



THE GARDEN. 55 

dry situation^ with the north board one foot wide 
the south board six inches, covered with movable 
glass sashes, and the earth within covered with a 
good coating of well-rotted manure, or rich earth, 
composes what is called a cold-frame, in which to 
BOW seeds in the autumn or winter months, so as 
to have plants to set out as soon as the frost is gone. 
These are all that will be necessary in this latitude; 
for the North a hotbed is sometimes necessary. 

Hotbeds are made in the same way as above, 
except that fresh stable manure is used, with a 
thin covering of rich earth in which to sow the 
seeds. But even at the North seeds sown in a 
hotbed will be destroyed by the great heat arising 
from the fresh manure, unless managed very care- 
fully. They should be watched, and the glasses 
or boards or cloths moved when too much heat is 
observed. Melons, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbages, 
cauliflowers, and lettuce may be obtained very early 
in spring by these means. 

For the cultivation of superior vegetables I re- 
commend Buist's Family Kitchen Gardener, Phil- 
adelphia, and in that you will find the best modes 
of preparing celery -beds, cold-frames, hotbeds, 
cold-pits, etc., which my limits will not allow me 
the space to describe as fully or as perfectly. 

For the flower-garden, use Buist's Flower-garden 
Directory. 

For the culture of pears. Field's Pear Culture. 

For Bees, Quinby's Mysteries of Bee Keeping. 

For the culture of grapes, Chorlton's Grape 
Growers' Guide. 



56 THR GARDEN, 

How TO Plant a Grapb-vinb. — ^Each year's ex- 
perience adds to the popularity of the grape as a 
table-frnit, which should be enjoyed by the poorer 
classes as well as the rich, for the expense and care 
necessary to grow and manage three, four, or half 
a dozen grape-vines is a mere trifle in comparison 
to the luxury of having an abundance of this de- 
licious fruit. In fact, no person owning or even 
leasing a house and garden, no matter how limited 
their means may be, should rest content without a 
family supply of grape-vines. The grape produces 
a crop of fruit the third year from the time of plant- 
ing the vines, and then annual crops for a lifetime 
under ordinary treatment. The vines require an 
annual pruning in the fall or winter, and the ground 
around the vines kept loose, fertile, and free from 
weeds and grass. When these simple requisites 
are attended to, the vines increase in productive- 
ness and vigor from year to year, in making new 
wood and bearing crops of well-ripened fruit. The 
grape can be grown with considerable success on 
almost any character of soil that is fertile and well 
drained, although it will give the largest returns 
on a deep loam that is in good heart. The roots 
of the grape-vine travel long distances in search of 
food, and every facility should be given the young 
fibrous roots by thorough pulverization of the soil 
before planting. It will not answer, in planting a 
vine, to hem in the roots in a hole eighteen inches 
or two feet in diameter, with four impervious 
walls, which will present serious obstructions to 
the healthy growth of the roots. Before setting 



THE GARDEN, 57 

the vines in place, the ground should be forked 
over to a depth of eighteen or twenty inches, mix- 
ing with it, at the same time, some well-rotted 
barn-yard manure, bone-dust, and wood -ashes. 
The surface and subsoil should be kept in their 
relative positions. Sometimes persons, in prepar- 
ing borders for vines, in fact for other crops, invert 
the whole mass, bringing on the surface several 
inches of a poor, cold subsoil, devoid of vegetable 
matter, in which nothing will grow for a time. 
As a matter of course, vines planted on such an 
inverted soil will make a weak, sickly growth for 
a year or two, until the roots strike the good soil 
that was unwisely buried. Most persons not fa- 
miliar with the culture and habits of the vine, in 
selecting will choose large old vines in preference 
to well-grown healthy one- or two-year-old vines. 
This is a great mistake, but one, however, that 
experience will correct. For garden and vineyard 
culture, strong one-year-old vines are best, and on 
no consideration should a vine more than two 
years old be planted with the hopes of getting a 
crop sooner from old than young vines. For, when 
properly planted, no matter what the age of the 
vine is, it is changed in a one-year-old vine before 
any hopes of success can be entertained. When 
everything is in readiness for planting, a hole 
should be dug, about five or six inches deep, and 
wide enough to admit each root to be stretched 
out to its full length. It is a very good plan, on 
planting, to mix some finely-ground bone with the 
earth, that is, put close to the roots. Fill in the 



58 THE GARDEN. 

hole with surface soil, being careful to get every 
root drawn out in its natural position. The soil 
may be raised three or four inches above the sur- 
face, to allow for settling, and pressed firmly with 
the foot close to the vine. The vine should then 
be cut back to three eyes. Each eye will send out 
a shoot. When these are two inches in length, the 
strongest one of the three should be selected and 
the other two rubbed off. This young shoot should 
be fastened to a wire or stake during the summer, 
rubbing off occasionally any laterals that may ap- 
pear, and allow the whole strength of the vine in 
this single shoot. At the close of the season's 
growth, this shoot should again be cut to three 
eyes, and then a system of training decided upon. 
Such strong growing varieties as the Concord and 
Hartford prolific, may be planted ten or twelve feet 
apart in the border. These vines require more 
room than is generally allowed to them in vine- 
yard culture, especially as the vines grow older. 
— New York Tribune. 

Strawberries. — It is well known to every prac- 
tical strawberry-grower that under certain treat- 
ment the appearance of the plant can be decidedly 
improved, and the size of the berries materially in- 
creased above the average of the main crop. This 
is done with certain varieties by selecting young, 
vigorous plants, keeping the runners cut off, and 
mulching the ground with long manure, watering 
the plants frequently, adding to the water a small 
quantity of ammonia. Then, again, by removing, 
when formed, a large part of the berries, leaving 



THE GARDEN. 69 

only a few of the most vigorous. These few will 
grow very much larger than if the whole were left 
on. By this meaus and copious watering, mon- 
strous berries are sometimes produced. Those 
mentioned are but a few of the many devices 
made use of in forcing berries for exhibition ; 
these methods are more or less expensive, and 
reqqire time for their perfection. — IhH. 

Bees. — Where there are many flowers there is 
nothing easier than to keep bees, especially if you 
have a lawn of white clover. As respects their 
management it is best to consult those who em- 
ploy the modern improvements in bee culture, and 
the mode of constructing the hives. 



60 THE NURSERY. 



THE HUBSEBY. 

The nursery should be a moderately large room, 
high-pitched, and well ventilated, with an open 
fireplace, in preference to either a stove or grate. 
An open fireplace, in which wood is burned, ad- 
mits of a free circulation of air. Every morning 
all the windows should be raised while the room is 
swept. Thus a fresh, pure air will pervade the 
room in place of that which has been inhaled and 
exhaled through the night by the lungs of all the 
inmates, and thus rendered impure and unwhole- 
some. A high wire fender should be provided for 
your nursery fireplace, too high for the little ones 
to climb over. There should be only such articles 
of furniture in the nursery as are absolutely neces- 
sary, so as to leave ample room for the children to 
run about and play. The tables should be without 
corners, A good thick carpet will save their little 
heads when they fall. Children of both sexes 
should always sleep in drawers coming well over 
the feet, so that they may be less liable to take cold 
when they throw ott' the covering. 

Your nurse should be a healthy, honest, well- 
tempered middle-aged woman, steady, careful, and 
fond of children. If possible choose one who is 
governed by real religious principles, that is, one 
who fears God, and strives to keep His command- 



TEE NURSERY, gj 

ments. See that she is cleanly in her own person, 
free from drinking or snuff-taking. She should not 
be self-sufficient, but always ready to inform you 
of everything connected with the nursery, and the 
w^elfare of the children, in order that you may 
exercise your own judgment and discretion in all 
such matters. However you may think you may 
confide in your nurse, never allow her to ad- 
minister medicines, especially opiates. Do this al- 
ways yourself, and you will never have to reproach 
yourself with neglect should anything untoward 
happen to your child from maladministration of 
medicines. 

If it should happen that you wish to attend a 
party at night, and your babe is not inclined to 
sleep, never administer opiates; forego the party 
rather, if you have not suflScient confidence .in 
your nurse to leave it in her care while awake. 
Here I am supposing you have not such a nurse as 
I have above described. It may not be your good 
fortune to possess such a blessing. 

In choosing a nurse or attendant for the nursery, 
a Christian mother should be very careful to avoid 
one who is under the baneful influence of super- 
stition. The history of the world abounds with 
deeds of darkness, death, and cruelty, the work 
of this agent of the Evil One. The remedy for this 
evil is in the hands of faithful parents, — earnest, 
watchful, Christian parents, — zealous for the honor 
of God, and the good of their offspring. The 
nursery is the hotbed of superstition. Who does 
not know that from the very first dawning of the 

6 



62 THE NURSERY. 

intelligent mind the inmates of the nursery are 
controlled by Buperstitious fear? For her own 
accommodation, how often does the nursery-maid 
still the restless little prattler by calling upon 
"the bugaboo to come and catch naughty little 
Charley !'' And further than this, the memory * 
of ghost-stories told in the nursery is among the 
most vivid of early impressions, and their injurious 
influence has been felt and lamented through an 
after-life of superior Christian training and rational 
knowledge. In infancy and childhood these mis- 
chievous impressions are fastened upon the mind. 
If this is really so, how important it is that 
parents should take care of their precious oft- 
spring, keeping them from such evil influences, 
and giving them as much as possible their own 
personal attention. Few persons are careful to 
consider the true import of this fearful word. To 
look at it in its true light it is necessary to divide 
the definition into three parts : 

First. It is an unworthy and low appreciation 
of the moral attributes of God. 

Second. It is a belief in the agency and in- 
fluence of inferior and malignant spirits; and. 

Third. It is a belief in fanciful ceremonies and 
incantations in place of scriptural faith and trust 
in Almighty God. 

This view of superstition should deter Christians 
from yielding to its injurious as well as blasphe- 
mous influence. It dishonors God and debases 
their own soul. Let us hope that a word to the 
wise will be sufficient. 



THE NURSERY, 63 

A New-born Infant should be immersed in a 
bath of warm water, all save the head, which 
should be kept carefully out. It should then be 
thoroughly washed with a soft piece of linen or 
flannel and Castile soap, first touching behind the 
ears, in the creases of the neck, etc., with a little 
sweet lardl 

That barbarous custom pursued by the majority 
of nurses, of stretching the hapless little creature 
on her lap and scrubbing it all over by piecemeals, 
should be utterly condemned. It subjects the little, 
tender creature to untold agonies of pain and cold- 
ness which its cruel operator would herself shrink 
from enduring. Besides the almost impossibilitif of 
washing the child eftectually, it is apt by this mode 
of exposure to contract a cold which may eventuate 
in its death. Those terrible and fatal convulsions 
of new-born babes called, commonly, black fits, are 
very probably brought on in this way. 

By the first-mentioned mode of washing it the 
little creature is comforted, a genial glow is diftused 
throughout the system, and aids the tender stranger 
in becoming accustomed to the ungenial clime in 
which it is destined to exist It soothes and con- 
soles while it establishes the circulation. 

While the babe is in the bath, let some one hold 
before the fire a square of flannel, with a soft? linen 
tow^el spread over it; let the towel be next the fire. 
As the nurse raises the infant from the bath, let 
the twofold wrapping of flannel and linen be put 
gently around it so as to envelop the whole body. 
Lay it in the nurse's lap and dry the infant by gently 



g4 THE NURSERY. 

pressing the towel to all parts of its body without 
rubbing, as this process is very irritating to the 
tender skin. Now powder your infant well, espe- 
cially in the neck, behind the ears, and indeed in 
all the creases or folds of its body. 

A number of tender mothers, I am aware, are 
averse to pins in their infants' clothes, and prefer 
buttons and tapes as fastenings. These do very 
well after awhile, but for the new-born babe, who is 
unable to move itself about, pins are far best, good, 
large pins, put in with the points well out. For as 
it is impossible to prejudge of the size of the infant's 
body, so is it impossible to place the tapes or but- 
tons so as to form a proper bandage in support of 
the back and abdomen of the infant at this stage 
of its existence, absolutely needing support, espe- 
cially as incompetent and careless nurses are apt to 
place them in a sitting posture long before the 
bones of the spine are sufficiently firm to endure 
the position, or the injudicious joltings which the 
poor little creature is most commonly subjected to. 
Avoid these, tender mother, by all means. The 
only effect of this mode of nursing is to render the 
tender infant sore in every bone of its little body. 
Quietude is best for the little adventurer into this 
world of perpetual motion, until it has become 
strong enough to move of itself. 

The Dressing. — A simple strip of flannel, about 
the length of the child's body, between the armpits 
and the hips, and about twice the length around 
the body, should be wrapped smoothly around the 
child, commencing and ending in the center of the 



THE NURSERY, 65 

back, then the linen or lawn shirt, and the body of 
the flannel skirt should be pinned smoothly together 
with the same piriy — one at the top, one at the mid- 
dle, and one at the lower part of the band ; let the 
three pins be carefully placed with the points weU out. 
Wlien this is done the infant will be well supported, 
well protected from injury, and more comfortable 
than if loosely clothed by means of tapes or but- 
tons. 

Nursery Diet. — The mother's milk is far the 
best diet for infants. Next to this, cow's or goat's 
milk mingled with warm water and sugar, in a 
small quantity. The water should be poured boil- 
ing hot on the milk^ and allowed to cool to the 
warmth of n-ew milk. Nature shows by the denial 
of teeth to new-born infants that solid food is not 
proper for them. 

When teeth are supplied in sufficient number to 
masticate solid food, a moderate quantity of such 
as is of a delicate quality will not be amiss, such as 
is easy of digestion ; but even then meats should be 
cut up fine before given to a child in the progress 
of dentition. And hard bread or crackers should 
be soaked in milk or tea before partaken of by such 
child. 

Dried fruits, especially raisins, should never be. 

given to children. These last, if swallowed whole, 

are apt to cause convulsions, and even if slightly 

chewed, are very indigestible. Cheese should 

never be given to young children, for the same 

reason. II is not good for them even if grated 

fine. 

6* 



66 THE NURSERY. 

Children seldom chew hard substauces perfectly. 
Well-cooked chicken, birds, or the soft part of 
oysters, are food strong enough for small children, 
and then well cut up. Boiled milk, thickened with 
rice flour, corn-starch, or wheat flour, is a very 
nutritious and agreeable diet for young children ; 
sweeten it slightly, — and if the child is threatened 
with diarrhoea, boil a stick of cinnamon in the 
milk. When your child has reached the age of 
three years, let its drink at breakfast and tea be 
simple milk; it is far more healthy than coffee or 
tea. Milk and good well-baked light bread or 
well-baked crackers are the very best breakfast for 
a child. Never give your child cake or preserves 
at night. Exercise is necessary to facilitate the 
digestion of such articles of food. 

In summer, if your child has the slightest tend- 
ency to diarrhoea, never allow it fresh vegetables 
of any kind, especially green corn or potatoes. 
Rice and small hominy are the best vegetables for 
children. A little salt herring or ham will some- 
times give tone to the weak stomach of a child, 
when suffering especially with diarrhoea. 

Diarrhoea. — If your child is seriously affected 
with diarrhoea, first administer a teaspoonful of 
castor oil, with a small portion of magnesia; and 
after it has operated, give a teaspoonful of Osborne 
syrup three times a day. Diet, rice flour gruel. 
If this does not succeed, send for the doctor. 

Gi^oup. — As soon as you find your child hoarse, 
give it a spoonful of melted lard, and keep it in 
the inursery. At night, bathe its feet in a hot mus- 



THE NURSERY, 67 

tard bath, so hot as to make the skin verj red, 
wipe them verj dry, and put on woolen stockings, 
or wrap them in flannel; repeat the spoonful of 
melted lard, and put the child to bed. If croupy 
symptoms continue, give a small dose of ipecacu- 
anha or hive syrup, sufficient to produce vomit- 
ing; when this is over, let the child sleep. But 
then if you find that the symptoms increase, send 
for a physician immediately, as you have done all 
that it would be right for you to do, unless, indeed, 
you apply some simple external remedy, — such as 
a mustard plaster to the throat, or cloths wrung out 
of boiling water. I have found this remedy per- 
fectly successful in one instance. It is said that a 
spoonful of sulphur in a tumbler of water, given 
every hour, has been found a sure remedy for croup. 
Give a spoonful of the water every hour. 

Convulsions.— Put the child immediately in 
warm water, and send for a physician. If a doctor 
cannot be found immediately, and you think the 
convulsions proceeded from anything the child has 
eaten, give an emetic of ipecacuanha, and follow it 
with copious drinks of warm water. Repeat the 
warm bath if the convulsions continue. And when 
you take it from the bath, be careful to wrap it well 
from the air, as a check of perspiration would be 
injurious, if not fatal. 

Worms. — ^Boil half an ounce of pinkroot in half 
a pint of water, add to the water (after straining 
it) half a pound of sugar, boil it to a candy, pull 
the candy into sticks, cut them about four inches 
long, and let the child eat it from time to time, for 



68 THE NURSERY. 

two days, especially before eating in the morning. 
Then boil half an ounce of senna leaves in the 
same way, and make the same quantity of candy 
of it. Give this to the child, as with the pinkroot. 
On the day after all is eaten, give a dose of castor 
oil. If this does not bring the worms, get a phy- 
sician to prescribe for your child, as it is dangerous 
for persons unacquainted with medicine to admin- 
ister such without medical advice. Pinkroot and 
senna are the usual prescriptions of physicians in 
this case. 

VoMiriNa. — If your child is seized with vomit- 
ing, first ascertain if it has eaten anything which 
has disagreed with it. If so, give a teaspoonful of 
salt in half a cup of warm water. If this does not 
enable the child to throw off* the off^jnding matter, 
give a small teaspoonful of ipecacuanha, followed 
with copious drinks of warm water. This will ena- 
ble the child to vomit easily. One or two drops of 
camphor in water will often relieve. If this does 
not relieve, send for the doctor. 

If the vomiting is not occasioned by improper 
food, it is more than probable that the cause is one 
requiring the aid of medicine which alone a physi- 
cian should administer. Therefore, in this case 
send for one immediately, if the vomiting con- 
tinues, especiallj^ if accompanied with diarrhoea. 
If no doctor is near, administer one drop at a time 
of spirits of camphor in a spoonful of wat^r every 
five or ten minutes. If this has no effect, add to 
the dose five drops of paregoric. Sometimes 
pounded mint with brandy laid on the stomach 



J 



THE NURSERY. 69 

will relieve. Often a mustard plaster will answer. 
Sometimes a cup of thin corn-meal gruel, without 
salt or sugar. 

Chafes. — Wash well with Castile soap, and grease 
with lard or mutton tallow. 

Tetter — Wash well with Castile soap, and apply 
citron ointment mixed with sulphur. If this will 
not do, apply the milk from fig leaves. I have sel- 
dom known it to fail, though it is very painful. 

Colic. — Catnip is excellent. If it fails, drop a 
little paregoric in the tea, say one or two drops for 
a youog baby. Sometimes cloths wrung out of 
hot water, applied to the bowels, will relieve. And 
sometimes gently rubbing the back will cause the 
babe to throw off the wind. This brings instant 
relief. 

Always wash your infant in a good tub of warm 
water. It is more expeditious, more thorough, and 
more comfortable to the child. 

Inflamed Eyes. — Wet them with a little brandy 
and water. If very obstinate, wipe them with a 
little, very little, castor oil. 

Chapped Hands. — Wash them well at night with 
Indian meal and water, then grease them with mut- 
ton tallow. _ 

If your child falls and strikes its head, be careful 
to keep it from falling asleep for at least two hours. 

If a limb is sprained, immerse it in warm water 
till the pain is relieved ; then wrap it in cloths 
wrung out of vinegar and water. 

If your child receives a cut, wash it clear of 
blood, and cover the wound with adhesive plaster. 



70 THE NURSERY. 

If it has a boil, use a milk and bread poultice^ 
or a little honey and flour. 

If it has a sore month, use borax and loaf sugar 
powdered together. 

When your child begins to teeth, and spills its 
saliva, put on it an oil-silk apron, coming quite up 
to the chin. 

If your child is threatened with diphtheria, apply 
ice to the throat, and give it strong iced lemonade 
constantly. Do these things at the beginning. 

Warts. — Touch them with a little nitrate of 
silver. 

Burns. — Wrap closely in raw cotton and turpen- 
tine. 

Child's Toothache. — Send the child to the den- 
tist. The new tooth is pushing the old one out, 
and the pain will continue as long as the contest. 

Keep your child's hair cut short; long hair de- 
forms a handsome child ; besides, it is much easier 
kept clean. 

Small children should not be allowed scissors, 
knives, forks, needles, or pins. 

Measles. — As soon as you perceive the symp- 
toms, keep your child from a draught of air, and 
give a little cold saffron-water to bring out the 
eruption ; that is, when the fever has showed itself 
and no eruption. 

Mumps are not dangerous. Keep the child from 
the cold, and its jaws lubricated with pigs'-feet oil. 
If the bowels are closed, open them with a mild 
laxative. 

Scarlet Fever. — Grease the child all over with 



THE NURSERY. 71 

lard or sweet oil, and keep it in a temperate air. 
Gargle with sage tea, honey and water, with a bit 
of alum. 

Hooping-cough must run its course. All you can 
do is to keep the child from taking cold. Keep your 
child out of the way of catching the disease in the 
fall or winter, but never avoid it in the spring, as 
it will pass oflt' more readily in warm weather. A 
syrup made of slippery-elm and loaf-sugar is very 
soothing, and if the child sufters very much, add a 
little paregoric at night. 

From five to twelve years clothe your children 
warmly in winter, and let them live out in the 
open air as much as possible. Do not force the 
intellect by means of books and a close school-room 
too soon. Let the skies, the fields, the garden, 
animals, plants, etc be their teacher for a time, 
and gradually introduce them to the love of books. 
They will learn then the faster, and make up for 
the seeming lost time. 

See that your children's clothes are well aired 
after being ironed ; and if they get their feet wet in 
going out, take off both shoes and stockings when 
they come in. Damp feet cause more severe colds 
than any other exposure. It would be far better 
to let your children go barefooted than have damp 
feet. 



72 TUB NURSERY. 



Children, Management o£ 

Tha limits of the present work will onljr admit 
of a few useful hints on this momentous subject, 
the care and training of the rising generation, the 
future rulers of the affairs of this world, and im- 
mortal heirs of an eternal inheritance in the next. 

Perhaps it will be more eftbctual to give an 
example or two from real life than a studied lec- 
ture on the care and management of young chil- 
dren. To wake up a loving mother to the danger 
of her child is always the surest way to gain her 
ear for its preservation, in circumstances concealed 
from her view by outward appearance. 

At the present day, too many mothers manage 
and clothe their children more with an eve to their 
own gratification, and even of their vain and 
thoughtless nurses, than to the health and comfort 
of their precious charge. 

A certain careful mother watched over the health 
and comfort of her children, regardless of the 
sneers of her fashionable neighbors. She clothed 
them warmly in winter, taking care that their 
necks, arms, and lower limbs were well protected 
from the cold, their feet kept warm and dry with 
woolen stockings and thick shoes. They were 
never allowed to be taken out in wet or damp 
weather, never in very windy weather, only on 
bright sunny days. In summer, they took the fresh 
air in the early morning and late in the afternoon, 



TBE NURSERY. 73 

never in the heat of the day. Their food was always 
simple, their habits were regular, their manners 
and morals studiously attended to. Pastimes of 
every rational and proper kind were provided them, 
home was rendered as happy as possible. Every 
reasonable indulgence was granted them. 

These children, every one of them (a goodly 
number), arrived at maturity with good constitu- 
tions, and with principles creditable to their parents. 
The happy parents now enjoy the blessing of 
their careful labor of love, having done their duty 
to the bodies and souls of their offspring, fitting 
them for the battle of life with uninjured constitu- 
tions, and minds fortified by wholesome Christian 
discipline. 

My second example I take from that class of 
mothers who would laugh at the old-fashioned 
notions and practices of my first example. The pre- 
vailing custom of extravagant dressing was adopted, 
without reference to health or comfort. In winter, 
they were extravagantly arrayed in embroidery and 
furs, save that the legs, arms, and neck were un- 
mercifully exposed to the weather. In summer, 
an infant of five or six months was arrayed in an 
extravagant profusion of laces, ribbons, flowers, 
and feathers, most uncomfortably placed in a re- 
clining posture, in a beautiful baby's barouche, with 
the top thrown back, so as to exhibit the beauty as 
well as the finery of the inmate as much as possi- 
ble, sent out with a thoughtless and foolishly fond, 
ambitious nurse, to vie with others in display- 
ing the elegance of the baby, and that too early 

7 



74 THE NURSERY. 

in the afternoon or late in the forenoon, when the 
broiling sun was darting its fierce hot rays into 
the tender eyes of the fondly cherished darling, — 
alas! perhaps at this very vainglorious moment 
the victim of some fell destroying fever. I knew 
of one infant treated in this way who died of 
brain fever. Too numerous to mention have been 
the instances I have witnessed of deaths from 
croup, diphtheria, and pneumonia, occasioned by 
the exposure of children in winter, through a vain 
conformity to fashion. 

The Manners of the Mother mould the Child. 
— There is no disputing this fact ; it shines in the 
face of every little child. The coarse, bawling, 
scolding woman will have coarse, vicious, bawling, 
fighting children. She who cries on every occa- 
sion, "I'll box your ears — I'll slap your jaws — I'll 
break your neck," is known as thoroughly through 
her children as if her w^omanly manners were 
openly displayed in the public streets ! 

These remarks were suggested by the conversa- 
tion in an omnibus — that noble institution for the 
students of men and manners — between a friend 
and a schoolmaster. Our teacher was caustic, 
mirthful, and sharp. His wit flashed like the pol- 
ished edge of a diamond, and kept the ''bus" in a 
" roar." The entire community of insiders — and 
whoever is intimate with these conveyances can 
form a pretty good idea of our numbers, inclusive 
of the "one more" so well known to the fraternity 
— turning their heads, eyes, and ears one way, and 
finally our teacher said: "I can always tell the 



THE NURSERY. 75 

mother by the boy. The urchin who draws back 
with doubled lists and lunges at his playmate if 
be looks at him askance, has a very questionable 
mother. She may feed him and clothe him, cram 
him with sweetmeats, and coax him with promises, 
but if she gets mad she lights. She will pull him 
by the jacket; she will give him a knock in the 
back; she will drag him by the hair; she will call 
bim all sorts of wicked names ; while passion plays 
over her red face in lambent flames that curl and 
writhe out at the corners of her eyes. 

" And we never see the courteous little fellow 
with smooth locks and gentle manners, in whom 
delicacy does not detract from courage or manli- 
ness, but we say, 'Xhat boy's mother is a true 
lady.' Her words and her ways are soft, loving, 
and quiet. If she reproves, her language is, * my 
son,' — not, *you little wretch — you plague of my 
life — you torment — you scamp.' 

"She hovers before him as the pillar of light 
before the wandering Israelite, and her beams are 
reflected in his face. To him the word mother is 
synonymous with everything pure, sweet, and 
beautiful. Is he an artist? In after-life, the face 
that with holy radiance shines on his canvas will 
be the mother-face. Whoever flits across his path 
with sunny smiles and soft, low voice, will bring 
* mother's image' freshly to his heart. * She is like 
my mother,' will be the highest meed of his praise. 
Not even when the hair turns silver and the eyes 
grow dim, will the majesty of that life and presence 
desert him. 



76 THE NURSERY. 

"But the ruffian motlier — alas, that there are 
such ! — will form the ruffian character of the man. 
He in his turn will become a merciless tyrant, with 
a tongue sharper than a two-edged sword, and re- 
membering the brawling and the cuffing, seek 
some meek, gentle victim for the sacrifice, and 
make her his wife, with the condition that he shall 
be master. And master he is for a few sad years, 
then he wears a widower's weed till he finds a vic- 
tim * number two.' " 

We wonder not that there are so many awkward, 
ungainly men in society — they have all been trained 
by women who knew not, nor cared not, for the holy 
nature of their trust. They have been made bitter 
to the heart's core, and tha^t bitterness will find 
vent and lodgment somewhat. Strike the infant 
in anger, and he will, if he cannot reach you, vent 
his passion by beating the floor, the chair, or any 
inanimate thing within reach. Strike him re- 
peatedly, and by the time he wears shoes he will 
have become a little bully, with hands that double 
for fight as naturally as if especial pains had been 
taken to teach him the art of boxing. 

Mothers, remember that your manners mould 
the child. — Selected. 



TBK NURSERY. 77 

Moral Training of Children. — "Suffer little 
children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for 
of such is the kingdom of heaven," said the divine 
Saviour; " and verily I say unto you, in heaven 
their angels do always behold the face of my 
Father who is in heaven." So that well may a 
wise man recommend that we reverence children. 
Most assuredly they are the nearest approach ex- 
hibited to our mortal sight of the guileless angels. 

Speak to them gently, then, touch them gently, 
gently deal with their faults. Never accuse them 
of wrong unless you are very sure of their de- 
linquency. An unjust charge will thrill through 
their tender little hearts with the poignancy of a 
two-edged sword. If often reiterated, the young 
heart gradually becomes accustomed to wrong, 
and by little and little hardened. "Wrong loses its 
horror and is adopted at last. 

Mothers, pause well on this momentous subject 
before you fall into harsh habits with your tender 
offspring. Many an open breaker of God's laws 
is educated for such by careless or unwise parents. 
Children feel keenly, though a wise and merciful 
Creator has so constituted them that misfortune, 
such as bereavement of parents or friends, is 
scarcely comprehended by them, and, consequently, 
not so keenly felt as by persons of maturer years ; 
were it so their tender hearts would break. "With 
them the tear " forgot as soon as shed" is a merci- 
ful provision. 

As soon as your children can lisp their Maker's 
name, teach them to bend the knee to their Father 

7* 



78 THE NURSERY, 

in heaven. Teach them to know that His all- 
seeing eye is ever upon thera. Thus will they be 
preserved from sin through the grace of their 
merciful Saviour. And train them early to attend 
the services of the church, to reverence the house 
of God, to know it as the gate to heaven. Suffer 
them not to violate the sanctity of the Lord's day. 
Teach them to value and love its services as a 
child of God, whose children they are. 

Encourage your children to confide in you, and 
to this end let them see that their happiness and 
welfare are all-important to you. Encourage open- 
ness and honesty in all things. Never deceive them. 
Share every comfort and enjoyment with them. At 
table always give them the best you have ; never 
say of an inferior preparation, " This will do for the 
children." Children are generally sagacious, and 
will be apt to attribute your motives to selfishness, 
or indifference to their enjoyments; thus they may 
come to disesteem their parents, a most disastrous 
result. 

Be careful to select their companions from the 
innocent and pure. The longer they are ignorant 
of guile, the more easily will good habits and prin- 
ciples be formed. Bad examples will lose their 
force, as the minds of your children are fortified 
l>y good principles and biased by habit. Thus 
carefully trained, your children will soon learn to 
love virtue and hate vice. And, above all, pray for 
your beloved offspring ; pray for the all-powerful 
grace of God to purify, strengthen, and confirm 
their hearts, and regulate their opening minds so 



THE NURSERY, 79 

that they may shine as lights ia this world, not for 
the emulation of the vain or ambitious, but for 
the encouragement of those who would attain with 
them the light of everlasting life. 

Water is one of the greatest earthly blessings to 
man, and cannot be too freely used. If we are 
thirsty, what a perfect relief is water, without the 
least temptation to excess in drinking! Nature 
craves no more than what is sufficient. How dif- 
ferent with the liquids compounded by man, which 
require the exertion of moral power to save the 
drinker from a ruinous excess ! 

" Touch not, taste not, handle not,*' should be 
the motto over every nursery door, for here, most 
commonly, a taste and fondness are acquired for the 
strong drinks compounded by man, — the waters 
of destruction. Toddy for this thing, and toddy 
for that, too commonly given to children, lays the 
foundation for drunkenness little dreamed of by 
the unthinking mother. Never administer this 
poison save as a prescription by a physician. Al- 
most all poisons are used in minute portions as 
medicines, and spirits among the rest; but none 
should enter the lips of a child but as a physician's 
prescription. 

Children should be used to habits of strict clean- 
liness from their very infancy. Not only will this 
preserve their health and comfort, but incline them, 
if taught their duty, to God, to the love of purity 
of heart and life. Remind them, while engaged 
in their accustomed bathing, to remember the 
washing of regeneration spoken of by the divine 



80 THE NURSERY. 

Saviour, when clothing themselves; of the pure 
robe of righteoasness, without which they can 
never enter heaven. Let them see that you your- 
self depend on the grace of God to guide you 
aright by observing regular seasons of prayer, if 
♦ you desire to form such habits in them. 

Endeavor to preserve their confidence, and 
never doubt them, unless you have the unhappi- 
ness to convict them of untruth. Then punish 
promptly. Not, however, with harshness, but with 
sorrow and discretion, according to the magnitude 
of the fault; and tell them of the sorrow they 
have caused to their compassionate Redeemer. 
Never doubt, if you persevere in this scriptural 
training, that your children will be preserved by 
the grace of God in innocency of life. For He is 
faithful who has promised. 



THE NURSERY, 



81 



The Children. 

BT CHARLES DICKENS. 

Whsk the lessons and tasks are all ended, 

And the school for the day is dismissed, 
And the little ones gather around me. 

To bid me good-night and be kissed : 
Oh, the little white arms that encircle 

My neck in a tender embrace I 
Oh, the smiles that are halos of beayen, 

Shedding sunshine of love on my face I 

And when they are gone I sit dreaming 

Of my children too lovely to last ; 
Of love that my heart will remember, 

When it wakes to the pulse of the past, 
Ere the world and its wickedness made me 

A partner of sorrow and sin, 
When the glory of God was about me. 

And the glory of gladness within. 

Oh, my heart grows weak as a woman's. 

And the fountains of feeling will flow. 
When I think of the paths, steep and stony. 

Where the feet of the dear ones must go ; 
Of the mountains of sin hanging o'er them, 

Of the tempest of Fate blowing wild ; 
Oh I there is nothing on earth half so holy 

As the innocent heart of a child I 

They are idols of hearts and of households ; 

They are angels of Gk>d in disguise ; 
His sunlight still sleeps in their tresses. 

His glory still gleams in their eyes ; 



82 TBE NURSERY. 

Oh I those truants from home and from heaven, 
They have made me more manly and mild 

And I know how Jesus could liken 
The Kingdom of God to a child. 

Seek not a life for the dear ones, 

All radiant as others have done, 
But that life may have just enough shadow 

To temper the glare of the sun ; 
I would pray God to guard them from evil. 

But my prayer would hound back to myself ; 
Ah I a seraph may pray for a sinner. 

But a sinner must pray for himself. 

The twig is so easily bended, 

I have banished the rule and the rod ; 
I have taught them the goodness of knowledge, 

They have taught me the goodness of God ; 
My heart is a dungeon of darkness, 

Where I shut them from breaking a rule ; 
My frown is sufficient correction ; 

My love is the law of the school. 

I shall leave the old house in the autumn, 

To traverse its threshold no more ; 
Ah I how I shall sigh for the dear ones. 

That meet me each morn at the door I 
I shall miss the '< good-nights" and the kisseft, 

And the gush of their innocent glee. 
The group on the green, and the flowers 

That are brought every morning to me. 

I shall miss them at morn and at eve. 

Their song in the school and the street; 
1 shall miss the low hum of their voices, 

And the tramp of their delicate feet. 
"When the lessons and tasks are all ended. 

And death says, " The school is dismissed P* 
May the little ones gather around me. 

To bid me good-night and be kissed. 



THE NURSERY, 83 



My Mother's Voice. 



Mt mother's yoice I I hear it now, 
I feel her hand upon my brow, 

As when in heartfelt joy 
She raised her evening hymn of praise, 
And called down blessings on the days 

Of her loved boy. 

My mother's voice 1 I hear it now. 
Her hand is on my burning brow, 

As in that early hour 
When fever throbbed through all my veins. 
And that kind hand first soothed my pains, 

With healing power. 

My mother's voice I It sounds as when 
She read to me of holy men — 

The Patriarchs of old — 
And gazing downward in my face, 
She seemed each infant thought to trace, 

My young eyes told. 

It comes, when thoughts unhallowed throng, 
Woven in sweet deceptive song— ^ 

And whispers round my heart. 
As when, at eve, it rose on high ; 
I hear and think that she is nighy 

And they depart. 

Though round my heart, all, all beside — 
The voice of friendship, love, had died — 

That voice would linger there. 
As when, soft pillowed on her breast, 
Its tones first lulled my infant rest, 

Or rose in prayer. 

Seleeied* 



84 THE NURSERT. 



The Trandle-Bed. 

As I rummaged through the attic, 

List'ning to the falling rain 
As it pattered on the shingles 

And against the window-pane ; 
Peeping o'er the chests and bozes. 

Which with dust were thickly spreadf 
Saw I in the farthest corner 

What was once my trundle-bed. 

So I drew it from the recess 

Where it had remained so long, 
Hearing all the while the music 

Of my mother's voice in song, 
As she sung in sweetest accents 

What I since have often read: 
" Hush, my dear, lie still and slumber. 

Holy angels guard thy bed." 

As I listened, recollections 

That I thought had been forgot, 
Came with all the gush of mem'ry, 

Rushing, thronging to the spot; 
And I wandered back to childhood. 

To those merry days of yore, 
When I knelt beside my mother. 

By this bed upon the floor. 

Then it was, with hands so gently 

Placed upon my infant head, 
That she taught my lips to utter 

Carefully the words she said. 
Never can they be forgotten, 

Deep are they in mem'ry driven: 
" Hallowed be thy name, O Father I 

Father I who art in heaven." 



THE NURSERY, 86 

This she taught me ; then she told me 

Of its import great and deep ; 
After which I learned to utter, 

*' Now I lay me down to sleep.*' 
Then it was, with hands uplifted, 

And in accents soft and mild, 
That my mother asked : " Our Fatherl 

O do thou now hless my child !'* 

Years have passed, and that dear mother 

Long has mouldered 'neath the sod, 
And I trust her sainted spirit 

Bevels in the home of God. 
But that scene at summer twilight 

Never has from mem'ry fled ; 
And it comes in all its freshness 

"When I see my trundle-hed 



" The Power of a Holy Life. — The beauty of a 
holy life constitutes the most eloquent and eflFect- 
ive persuasive to religion which one human being 
can address to another. We have many ways of 
doing good to our fellow-creatures; but none so 
good, so efficacious as leading a virtuous, upright, 
and well-ordered life. There is an energy of moral 
suasion in a good man's life, passing the highest 
efforts of the orator's genius. The seen but silent 
beauty of holiness speaks more eloquently of God 
and duty than the tongues of men and angels.*' — 
Churchman^ Hartford. 

A Plea for the Little Folks. — Don't expect 
too much of them ; it has taken forty years, it may 

8 



86 THE NURSERY. 

be, to make you what you are, with all your les- 
sons of experience; and I will dare say you are a 
faulty being at best. Above all, don't expect 
judgment in a child, or patience under trials. 
Sympathize in their mistakes and troubles; don't 
ridicule them. Remember not to measure a child's 
trials by your standard. "As one whom his mother 
comforteth," says the inspired writer; and beauti- 
fully does he convey to us the deep, faithful love 
that ought to be found in every woman's heart, 
the unfailing sympathy with all her children's 
griefs. When I see children going to their father 
for comfort, I am sure there is something wrong 
with their mother. 

Let the memories of their childhood be as bright 
as you can make them. Grant them every in- 
nocent pleasure in your power. We have often 
felt our temper rise to see how carelessly their 
little plans were thwarted by older persons, when 
a little trouble on their part would have given the 
child pleasure, the memory of which would last 
a lifetime. Lastly, don't think a child hopeless 
because it betrays some very bad habits. We 
have known children that seemed to have been 
born thieves and liars, so early did they display 
these undesirable traits, yet we have lived to see 
those same children become noble men and women, 
and ornaments to society. We must confess they 
had wise, affectionate parents. And whatever else 
you may be compelled to deny your child by your 
circumstances in life, give it what it most values, 
plenty of love. 



THE NURSERY. 87 

Religion in thb Family. — The first place in 
which piety is to shed its benign and sanctifying in- 
fluence is the family. All the relative duties of life 
are but as concentric circles, ranged around a com- 
mon center; and as the family is the nearest, and the 
first in order, its influence there is to be pre-eminent. 
A family where religion reigns supremely is a charm- 
ing spectacle to angels and men, and shines as a 
brilliant light in the world. There mutual affection 
and forbearance, one toward another, habitually 
prevail. Within its peaceful habitation parental 
authority, blended with kindness and gentleness, is 
always maintained. Wisdom and prudence in 
training the youthful members for the duties of 
life are continually displayed. Around that altar 
kneels each day a group of devout worshipers; 
and sweeter than the fragrant breath of the morn- 
ing rises the incense of prayer and praise to Israel's 
gentle Shepherd. The heads of that family feel 
that every act of theirs is charged with influence ; 
and that their spirit, temper, and deportment are 
all moulding human character for time and 
eternity; and therefore their deep solicitude and 
watchfulness are unceasingly exercised that they 
may bring up those committed to their charge 
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. On 
such home culture the smile of high heaven 
rests. And to show his approbation of it, God 
declared concerning Abraham, " I know him, that 
he will command his children, and his household 
after him, and they shall keep the way of the 
Lord, to do justice and judgment." Such influ- 



88 THE NURSERY, 

ence is like the aromatic perfume of the violet, 
insinuating itself into the deep recesses of the 
infantile mind and heart, where no other could 
penetrate. And to the present day the inspired 
aphorism is true, "Train up a child in the way he 
should go, and when he is old he will not depart 
from it/' — Rev. John Berg, 



From the Church Register.] 

All Saints— 1867. 



No touch of chill in this clear air, 

Tho' Autumn's scarlet flame 
Illumes the grove with glory brief 

As some fierce conqueror's fame ; 
Yet speaks the day nor fear nor care ; 

Shines rather in her smile, 
The promise of that parting Look 

Which breathed — *'a little while." 

Hark 1 hark I the pulsing sound of bells 

Upon the ear faint falls, 
Our holy Mother Church, to prayer 

Her scattered children calls. 
Ah, well those skies may loveliest be 

A reverent Nature paints. 
Which summons earth with heav'n to share 

The fair feast of All Saints. 

A few soft fleeces, like the plumes 

Of angel wings, brood o'er 
The hazy line where earth meets heaven 

As meets the main its shore; 



THE NURSERY. 89 

So still and fair they float and lie, 

Their lustrous pearly gleam 
Seems caught from those bright gates that shone 

On Bunyan's closing dream. 

And gazing, filled with thoughts like these, 

In heaven's translucent blue, 
Kings, Prophets, Priests, and Martyrs seem 

To gather on the view. 
Her scroll-like mists the Past unrolls, 

And sacred legends shine 
With records from the Book of Life, 

In characters divine. 

Yon gilded cloud is like the harp 

The poet-king bent o'er, 
And with his psalmistry inspired. 

He sweeps the strings once more ; 
The kneeling cherub, whose fair brow 

Lifts up adoring praise. 
Is he whose trusting *< Here am I'' 

Sounds sweet from distant days. 

That joyous look is his whose songs 

Of Lamentation moan 
On every breeze, fanned o'er the wild 

Once David's glorious throne ; 
The "burden of his sorrow's" falPn, 

Crowned with the victor's palm, 
" Healed of his hurt," he asks no morOi 

*' Is there in Qilead balm?" 

And he, the herald, whose dark eye 

Pilled with prophetic ire. 
Warned Israel from the wrath to comc^ 

In words of living fire. 
Who, given grace his King to know, 

All meekly though He trod, 
Proclaimed in speech whose heaven-taught flow 

Yet heals—" the Lamb of God !" 

8* 



90 THE NURSERY. 

The early martyr with his face 

'* As of an angel ," looks 
Upon ufl| smiling, as he smiled 

When all of earth forsook ; 
And he, whose tears washed out the stain 

Of love by faith forsaken, 
Stands now, through suffering perfect growily 

The Church's rock unshaken. 

And there, the great Apostle, who 

Through far isles wandered, shod 
With Gospel peace, and boldly taught 

Proud Greece her "unknown Gkid." 
Whose glowing zeal, on eagles' wings 

Bathed in the Kisen Sun — 
Dared all, to hear in heaven at last, 

The Master say, " Well done I" 

Yon seraph face in melting blue, 

Whose wondrous lovely eyes 
Have caught their pure, transcendent hue 

From light beyond the skies, 
Is his, who leaning oft to rest 

The Saviour's heart above, 
Well learned its sacred secrets blessed, 

And living breathed but *' Love." 

The eye grows dim with gazing, while 

The longing heart flows o'er 
With bliss, like that the exile feels, 

Drawn near his native shore ; 
Dear faces smile, that, bathed in tears, 

We laid beneath the sod. 
Loved hands, once clasped, are waved to greet 

And beckon us to God. 

And see, — th' innumerable host 

Still on the vision grow I 
"A cloud of witnesses,'^ that wreathes 

Heaven's vault with wings of snowl 



THE NURSERY. gj 

Where is thy victory, O Grave 7 

And where thy sting, O Death? 
Eternal conquering Life reigns here, 

I feel its quickening hreath. 

Its pulses throb within my soul, 

And tell me that to die 
Is but the groveling entrance dark 

To immortality I — 
Dear Lord, Thy life enkindle now 

In all 1 So love's constraints 
Shall bring us safely home to dwell 

Porever with Thy Saints I 

Nofsember Ist^ 1867. Lath. 



A Parable. — " Oh, dear ! I am so tired of Sun- 
day!'* So said Willie, a playful little boy, who 
was longing for the Sabbath to be over, that he 
might return to his amusements. 

" Who wants to hear a story ?" said a kind friend 
who was present. " I, sir,'* " and I," " and I," 
said the children, as they gathered around him. 
Then he told them a parable. Our Saviour, when 
he was on earth, often taught the people by para- 
bles. 

The parable told the little boys was of a kind 
man who had some very rich apples hanging upon 
a tree. A poor man was passing by the house of 
the owner, and he stopped to admire this beautiful 
apple-tree. He counted these ripe golden pippins 
— ^there were just seven of them. The rich owner 



92 THE NURSERY. 

could aflford to give them away ; aud it gave him 
so much pleasure to make this poor man happy 
that he called him and said, " My friend, I will give 
you a part of my fruit." So he held out his hand 
and received six of the apples. The owner had 
only kept one for himself. 

Do you think the poor man was grateful for his 
kindness? No, indeed. He wanted the seven 
pippins all for himself. And at last he made up 
his mind that he w^ould watch his opportunity, 
and go back and steal the other apple. 

"Did he do that?" said Willie, very indignant. 
" He ought to have been ashamed of himself. And 
I hope he got well punished for stealing that apple." 

" How many days are there in a week, Willie ?" 
said his friend. 

"Seven," said Willie, blushing deeply; for now 
he began to understand the parable, and he felt an 
uneasy sensation at his heart — conscience began to 
whisper to him, "And ought not a boy to be 
ashamed of himself who is unwilling on the seventh 
day to lay aside his amusements ? Ought he not 
to be punished if he will not remember the Sab- 
bath day to keep it holy ?" 

It's Vbry Hard. — " It's very hard to have no- 
thing to eat but porridge when others have every 
sort of dainty," muttered Charley, as he sat with 
his wooden bowl before him. 

" It's very hard to have to get up so early on 
these bitter cold mornings, and work hard all day, 
when others can enjoy themselves without an hour 
of labor !" 



THE NURSERY, 93 

''It's very hard to have to trudge along through 
the snow while others roll about in their coaches !" 

" It's a great blessing," said his grandmother, as 
she sat at her knitting, " it's a great blessing to have 
food, when so many are hungry; to have a roof 
over one's head, when so many are homeless ; it's 
a great blessing to have sight, and hearing, and 
strength for daily labor, when so many are blind, 
deaf, or suffering !" 

*'Why, grandmother, you seem to think that 
nothing is hard," said the boy, still in a grumbling 
tone. 

" No, Charley, there is one thing that I think 
very hard." 

" What's that V cried Charley, who thought that 
at last his grandmother had found some cause for 
complaint. 

" Why, boy, I think that heart is very hard that 
it is not thankful for so many blessings." 

A Good Father. — One evening, as the wind was 
raging and howling with terrible force, shaking the 
house, and making timid people tremble for fear of 
fire or other accidents that might befall them, a 
number of grown persons were complaining of the 
wakeful and restless night they had endured during 
the recent winter storms. A little boy, who had 
listened unalarmed, with a sweet, beaming trust in 
his face, said, in his turn, " I sleep so well and 
sound because I've got such a good Father. I know 
he would not let anything happen to me. If the 
house should catch lire, he would take me right up 
in his arms, and run down-stairs with me, and I'd 
be safe." 



94 THE NURSERY, 

This went to my heart, rebuked the fears of those 
who tremble and toss upon restless pillows, when 
He who holds the winds in His fist is their Father 
and friend. The remark of that dear boy has taught 
me a lesson which I hope to remember. When I 
go to his bedside, after he has been asleep for 
hours, and see his ruddy cheeks and clustering 
ringlets, and I watch his peaceful, innocent expres- 
sion, and listen to his gentle breathing, knowing, 
as well as I do, that he is a timid child, often flying 
with fear from trifling causes of alarm, then I feel 
how deep and prevailing must be his trust in a 
father's loving heart and strong arms, to cause such 
dreamless slumbers amid howling winds and storms. 
Cannot the experienced Christian learn a lesson 
even from a babe's lips? Ought we not to rest 
peacefully amid causes of alarm, because we " have 
got such a, good father ?^^ — Church Register^ Mobile^ 
Ala. 

"How TO Manage Precocious Children. — Many 
of the most prominent children are sacrificed to a 
desire to bring them forward in advance of other 
children, and this desire is stimulated by natural 
instincts. Every living creature rejoices in the use 
of the faculties which God has given it, * as a 
strong man to run a race.' The boy whose muscles 
are well developed will never keep still, but is 
ready for anything, good or bad, in which he can 
stir himself. To such a one study is a punish- 
ment. 

*'But the boy whose muscles are feeble, and whose 
brain is largely developed, sits still and reads, and 



THE NUiiSEHY. 95 

the appetite, of course, coaforms to the kind and 
amount of exercise. If he wastes his muscles in 
exercise, his appetite will demand the muscle-mak- 
ing nitrogen to supply the waste. If he wastes the 
phosphorus of the brain by study, he will desire 
phosphatic food to restore it. While the fat and 
stupid boy, who has neither muscle nor brain, will 
crave carbonaceous articles to feed his stupidity; 
and indulgence in these appetites will of course 
increase the peculiarity. 

" I have seen the little kingbird, after an hour of 
extraordinary exertions in driving from the neigh- 
borhood an intruding hawk, devote the next hour 
to catching bees and hornets, which abound both 
in nitrate and phosphates, as a means of restoring 
his muscular and vital energy. The bird is safe in 
following his inclinations, living as it does accord- 
ing to natural laws ; and having no abnormal de- 
velopment of faculties, and no abnormal appetites, 
it can eat what it desires, and as much, with perfect 
impunity. 

*'But the child, changed in its condition, as it 
may be by the ignorance and folly of its parents, 
even before its birth, is abnormally developed, and 
of course has abnormal appetites. Indulging these 
appetites, in case of precocity of the brain, of 
course increases the excitement of the brain, and 
the result is inflammation and premature death. 

"A child with a precocious brain, or who is very 
forward, to use the common expression, is of course 
more liable to dangerous diseases of the brain than 
other children ; but if parents would give the sub- 



96 THE NURSERY. 

ject thought, and use their reason in this as iu 
other less important matters, these diseases might 
generally be warded off. 

*'If our eyes have been overworked, or are weak 
and liable to inflammation, we avoid overusing 
them, especially in the strong light, and if so in- 
flamed that too much light and all use of them 
gives pain, we shut out light altogether, and give 
them rest till they recover. Both light and seeing 
are pleasant to the eyes in health, and absolutely 
necessary to give them health and strength, but 
when diseased, are both alike injurious, and we 
avoid the influence of both till they recover. And 
when only weak, and not absolutely diseased, we 
are careful to have the light or use the eye only 
moderately or carefully. So of any other organ 
or faculty — that which is necessary to it in health 
must be carefully used in tendency to disease. 

"Apply this principle to a precocious brain. The 
brain is as dependent on appropriate exercise and 
a supply of phosphorus in health as is the eye on 
exercise and light; and as we withdraw the exer- 
cise and light in weakness and disease, so should 
we allow the brain rest from exercise and phos- 
phatic food in case of disease and premature de- 
velopment." 



Riirht. 



Yes, right is right, since God is God, 
And right the day must win ; 

To doubt would be disloyalty, 
To falter would be sin. — Faher. 



TUE SICK ROOM. 1)7 



Hymn. 

Wx thank Thee, Lord, for this fair earth, 

The glittering sky, the silver sea ; 
For all their beauty, all their worth, 

Their light and glory come from Thee. 

Thanks for the flowers that clothe the ground, 

The trees that wave their arms above. 
The hills that gird our dwellings round. 

As Thou dost gird Thine own with love. 

Yet teach us still how far more fair. 

More glorious, Father, in Thy sight. 
Is one pure deed, one holy prayer, 

One heart that owns Thy Spirit's might. 

So, while we gaze with thoughtful eye 

On all the gifts Thy love has given. 
Help us in Thee to live and die, 

By Thee to rise from Earth to Heaven. 

Hynmoloffia Christiana. 



THE SIOE-BOOH. 



This should be a well-ventilated apartment, and 
scrupulously clean. Everything in it should wear 
an air of cheerfulness, quietude, and comfort. 
There should be no loud talking or whispering, 
but the voice should be carefully attuned to a 
moderate, and, if possible, musical key, — that is, 
without discords. If the voice is naturally harsh, 
modulate it as far as practicable. Avoid creaking 
shoes, hasty, noisy movements, or impatience of any 



98 THE SICKROOM, 

kind. Wear slippers, move slowly, quietly, care- 
fully, not clumsily, so as to upset chairs or throw 
down tongs. 

Quiet, patience, watchfulness, tenderness, with 
regular and prompt attention to the directions of 
the attendant physician, are absolutely necessary in 
a good nurse. Kindness, gentleness, and tender- 
ness in handling the patient, are most important. 
Admit no company in cases of serious sickness, 
only those who are capable and disposed to aid 
you in the discharge of your duties. Friends will 
take no oftense at the exclusion, but will readily 
approve of such a course. 

In some cases cheerful company may be occa- 
sionally beneficial, — when the spirits are morbidly 
depressed, — cheerful, pleasant company can do no 
harm for a reasonable time, and may be of service. 

The apparel as well as the bedclothes should be 
frequently changed, especially in case of fevers. 

Bathing is very essential, both to the comfort 
as to the recovery of the sick. Without this, the 
effluvia and perspiration emitted through the pores 
of the skin will close them and poison the already 
enfeebled system, thus barring recovery. If the 
patient is too feeble to be placed in the bath, spong- 
ing with tepid water will answer. If this cannot 
be done throughout at once, do it gradually, as the 
patient is able to bear it. 

I have known patients become fifty per cent, bet- 
ter immediately after a comfortable bath, even by 
gradual sponging. 

Ilumor your patient too, as far as at all consist- 



THE SICK-ROOM, 99 

ent with safety, endeavor to draw off the thoughts 
as much as possible from the state of suffering. 
Never tell the sick disagreeable or alarming news, 
especially of deaths. 

Physicians generally disapprove of acquainting 
patients with their real state, when that state is 
supposed to be bordering on a fatal result. But it 
is not at all consistent with a conscientious concern 
for the eternal welfare of a friend or relative to 
suffer him to die without knowing his nearness to 
the judgment-seat of his Maker. If it gives alarm 
merely, it is not a needless alarm ; a neglect of this 
duty is akin to murder of the soul. 

How will you meet such friend at the great day 
of accounts, knowing that you might have afforded 
him an opportunity of making his peace with his 
God, and did not do it, lest you tnight possibly 
shorten his mortal existence a few moments in 
order to save him for eternal life ? 

When it pleases the Maker of all to take back 
the dear one you received m a loan from Him, try 
and consider that it is for the best. Be sure God, 
who is a God of love and kindness, would not have 
afflicted you but as a tender father. Trust that 
your dear one is in the blessed presence of the 
Saviour. That his blessed angel bore him ten- 
derly and lovingly to that glorious land "where 
tears are wiped from every eye and sorrow is un- 
known." Strive rather to render your life more 
pure and holy every day, that you may attain to 
that heavenly mindedness without which you are 
not a fit companion for th« blessed and holy, in 



100 ^^^' SrCK'ROOM. 

whose company your dear one, "gone before," 
rejoices. 



Diet for the Sick-Room. 

Wine- WHET. — Boil a pint of new milk, and 
while boiling pour in a glass of white wine. Let 
it boil a second time, strain out the curds, and the 
whey is ready. Add sugar, nutmeg, or spice of 
any kind you like. 

Beef-tea. — Cut up into small slices half a pound 
of beef, cover it with cold water in a porcelain 
stew-pan, and allow it to simmer till the beef is 
done. Skim it well, and it is ready for use. Sea- 
son it with salt and pepper as the patient likes. 
Some put the beef, after cutting up, into a wide- 
mouthed bottle, cork it tight, and place the bottle 
in a kettle of cold water, and boil it till the beef is 
done. This is a very good way, but the first is 
equally as good, and much more quickly prepared; 
besides that, the bottle is very apt to break, and 
the work all to be done over again, while the 
patient is languishing for the nourishment. It is 
apt to require several hours to make the beef-tea in 
the bottle. 

Eice Flummery. — Boil a pint of new milk with a 
stick of cinnamon ; moisten a small teacupful of rice- 
flour with a little milk or water, to the consistency of 
paste; add it to the boiling milk, and having sweet- 
ened it to your taste, pour it into a mould; let it 
get cold, and then turn it out on a glass dish. Eat 



THE SICK-ROOM, 101 

it with cream or preserves. This is excellent diet 
for an invalid, especially if afflicted with diar- 
rhoea. 

Sago. — ^Boiled to a jelly. To be eaten with milk 
or cream and sugar. Season to suit the patient. 

Arrowroot.- -Wet a spoonful of arrowroot with 
a little water into a paste, then pour on boiling 
water, stirring all the while till it is transparent. 
Season to please the patient. Lemon-juice and 
peel makes it very pleasant with a little sugar. 

Chicken- WATER. — Boil a young chicken till the 
meat drops from the bone. Season the water with 
a little salt, pepper, and thyme. 

If you wish soup, add a little rice at the first, 
and a small sprig of thyme. A little milk im- 
proves it. 

RiCB Gruel. — ^Boil a cup of new milk, and 
thicken it with a little rice-flour. Add sugar or 
salt, as the patient likes. 

Barley Milk. — Boil the barley in milk, with a 
stick of cinnamon, or a little grated lemon-peel. 
A spoonful of barley to a cup of milk, or half a 
pint. 

Barley-water is excellent for a weak stomach. ' 

Toast-water. — Toast a piece of light bread very 
brown, put it in a tumbler, and fill it with cold 
water. 

Frozen Cream. — Pure sweet cream, with very 
little sugar ; flavored to suit the patient. 

Baked Apples, simply with the skins on. To 
be eaten cold. 

A simple cerate to dress blisters with is made 

9* 



102 THE SICK-ROOM. 

of equal parts of lard, mutton-tallow, beeswax, 
and sweet oil. 

Mustard plasters should always be covered with 
thiD muslin, otherwise it adheres to the skin, and 
is very disagreeable. 

Mustard-baths should be sufficiently warm to 
make the skin red. 

Fly Blibteks should be cut at the lower part, but 
not with many cuts. The skin should be broken 
no more than is necessary. They should be washed 
with a very soft rag, Castile soap, and warm water. 
The soft linen rag, with the cerate, should be some- 
what larger than the blister. 

Leeches. — Cut holes in a piece of soft paper, 
place it over the skin ; put the leeches on it. They 
will soon find the skin, and take hold. Use a 
sponge and warm water to encourage the bleeding. 
To stop bleeding, use lint on the bites. 



HOME, 103 



HOME. 

What precious, loving, soothing joys cluster 
around this word ! Home does not mean merely 
a house, containing the requisite number of apart- 
ments to be occupied by a growing family, fur- 
nished comfortably, or elegantly; home is too 
sacred a word to mean such things as these. A 
word so heaven-derived must have a more exalted 
signification. As its glorious prototype, the earthly 
home must mean the center of love, joy, peace, 
around which gather the loved and loving, even 
as the blessed angels in heaven encircle the throne 
of love and glory eternal. 

Home is the center of love, — woman's paradise 
regained. Here her Creator has ordained the 
sphere in which she may make amends for the 
evils she has brought upon her race by listening 
to the subtle enemy of souls. Aided by the gra- 
cious Redeemer's all-powerful grace, those in the 
midst of whom she sits the center of love, may be 
restored to that blessed first estate from which the 
daring, unholy spirit of pride and rebellion be- 
guiled her unwary obedience from her just and 
holy and beneficent Creator. What a glorious 
mission is this ! What folly, what madness, then, 
to abandon it for the poor rewards again presented 
to her aspirations by that same spirit of malice 
and impotent presumption who first brought the 
curse upoq her race ! 



104 HOME. 

The chosen life-companion of the man who in 
his devotion to your happiness has provided you a 
pleasant domicile, the surrounding of his home- 
center, the wife of his love, where with one heart, 
one will, one united efibrt, the duties and interests 
and rewards of a rational earthly existence may 
symbolize that celestial state of being for which 
both were formed, — ^you the home-center, or wife, 
must consider yourself as occupying a mission of 
love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, good- 
ness, faith, meekness, temperance, taking care 
that these heaven-taught virtues shine through 
and regulate everything in the household. 

First, to the husband, she should, in an especial 
manner, practice all these ennobling traits of a 
Christian woman. Love, confiding love, should 
actuate every look, word, and action. Faith or 
confidence in one, will create faith or confidence 
in the other. 

The wife should meet her returning husband 
with a cheerful smile and glad welcome under all 
circumstances^ no matter how seemingly adverse, 
especially after the toils of the day, when many 
annoyances may have made the spirit unquiet, 
needing the composing, comforting voice, and 
caress of love. A cold or thoughtless repulse at 
such a moment may lay the foundation for a last- 
ing estrangement, when a resolute carrying out 
of a firm resolve always to meet him with a loving 
smile and hearty welcome, will be sure to meet with 
its due reward, — unwavering love and rectitude of 
conduct, — when repulses, frowns, taunts, or bus- 



HOME. 105 

picions may alienate and drive him from his 
home-center of love and happiness to other re- 
son rces not so true, so pure, or so refining. Make 
his fancies or humors your study, comply cheer- 
fully with them all, even if at times your efforts to 
please are not appreciated so readily. Persevere 
in this dutiful course, it cannot fail to convince 
him of the correctness of his judgment in the choice 
of that precious home-center of happiness and peace 
which nothing outside of that home can ever affbrd 
him ; consequently, when away from this unfailing 
solace and comfort, in his heart of hearts will ever 
abide a yearning for that center of blessedness. 

Select otie of the pleasantest apartments in your 
dwelling for a sitting-room or family resort ; here 
enthrone yourself as the cheerful dispenser of every 
good and pleasant thing, to husband, children, and 
guests, not forgetting the happiness of those obedi- 
ent domestics who constantly minister to your com- 
fort and satisfaction. Always have a sweet, gentle 
word and look for them while in attendance on 
you and yours. If you are a musician, have your 
instrument here, in readiness always when need 
be to enliven the household. Perchance here may 
be your library, containing useful, instructive, and 
entertaining books, pictures, too, or other works 
of art, elevating the tastes and enjoyments of your 
children. 

Resolutely eschew cards, as they are apt to en- 
gender a fondness for gaming, and we all know 
how inclination for any pleasure deadens a sense 
of wrong. Battledoor, and other innocent pastimes, 



106 HOME. 

on a rainy day, may be introdaced with advantage 
and pleasure. 

Keep this apartment always bright, cheerful, and 
inviting to your husband and children, so that 
wherever wandering they may ever turn to this 
spot as their refuge of peace, happiness, and 
rest, — ^yourself the center of attraction. With a 
very little attention, if your household is well 
regulated, the whole establishment may be made 
bright and cheerful. At the present day the 
custom is almost universal to keep the doors and 
window-shutters closed, to avoid fading carpets, 
curtains, etc., as well as to relieve the eye from 
the glare of the sun. Most gentlemen dislike this 
custom. Should your husband partake of this 
aversion, open your doors and shutters at once ; 
no matter about the fading of the carpets and 
curtains, no matter about the glare, — please your 
husband at all events. Never drive him elsewhere 
to enjoy the light of the sun or the free circulation 
of air. Never allow him so plausible an excuse to 
seek for comfort elsewhere than at home. 

Make your home, indeed, the seat of love, of 
peace, of enjoyment, — rational enjoyment. Here 
it has pleased a merciful and pardoning God to 
afford to sinful woman another opportunity, and 
higher means, of rendering to her Creator in this 
paradise regained, that obedience from which 
she fell. And if she places her trust in the 
divine Redeemer she shall receive power from 
on high to accomplish the enduring purpose for 
which she was originally created, to secure un- 



HOME. 107 

dying bliss to herself and her posterity, and the 
eternal glory of God, her Creator. 

As one by one it pleases the Giver of all good 
to increase the blessing of children, so should in- 
crease the care and vigilance of the watchful 
mother in warding ott* the beguiling of the Evil 
One, and in training their tender minds to the 
love and service of their Mak^r, — the tender 
branches to cluster and cling around that invig- 
orating Vine, whose eternal Root is fixed on high, 
even in the eternal Throne. Sure and steadfast will 
be their growth in grace if so trained from their 
earliest capabilities; for what saith the word of 
God, "Train up a child in the way be should go, 
and when he is old he will not depart from it.'* 
This injunction is given to parents personally. It 
does not mean merely sending them to church or 
Sunday-school ; it docs not mean the ridding one's 
self of personal responsibility, by turning these 
inalienable duties over to a third person, however 
capable that person may be : it means the daily 
teaching and training, by one's self, by the mother 
especially, of one's offspring in the faith, fear, and 
love of God. Devote your children to God at 
the earliest possible moment. Place them at once 
in his faithful keeping; bear them ever in your 
arms and hearts of love before his sight, that He 
may never forget them as his own, so shall they 
be safe from the influence of evil. Teach them as 
soon as possible to believe in his ever-present 
Providence. and care, that his all-seeing eye is ever 
upon them, so will the gentle Saviour ever fold 



108 HOME. 

them in his arms and make them blest. And 
when, through the power of his grace, you have 
done your duty to these precious souls confided to 
your tender care and training, how joyfully will 
you meet them all in those blissful mansions pre- 
pared for all who love and serve their ascended 
Lord ! Then, indeed, will your earthly home have 
proved a type of heaven, where faith is consum- 
mated in bliss in the Home above. 

A lovely home, such as I have described, is now 
within my personal observation. 

Two young, earnest Christians were united 
some twelve years ago, — a home of Christian love 
and obedience was established. Although possess- 
ing the means of almost unlimited affluence, these 
true hearts could not be drawn aside from the 
duties and pleasures of their Redeemer's service; 
no earthly advantage or pleasure could divert their 
minds from the pursuit of those enduring treasures 
laid up in heaven for the servants of God. Every 
rational and beautiful adornment makes up the 
surroundings of this Christian home, and earnestly 
do its inmates strive to render it a type of that 
glorious home above, the object of their holy, 
earnest aspirations. Here an altar is raised for the 
daily worship of their Maker, and all the members 
of the circle unite, morning and evening, in this 
holy worship. Peace, harmony, and love abound 
throughout, — faith, hope, and blessed charity, love 
to God, and benevolence to man, govern and adorn 
this quiet, rational home. 

A lovely little daughter now takes her mother's 



HOME. 109 

place at the piano ; morning and evening the pa- 
rents, little ones, and domestics surround her, and 
all unite in praising God. A sweet strain of heaven- 
taught music arises to the gates of heaven from 
their united voices; six lovely children of God pour 
forth their guileless praise from spirits daily ripen- 
ing for the choirs above. Thrice blessed parents, 
w^hat bliss is yours even in this uncertain world! 
Yet think not, admiring reader, that no trial of 
faith and love has interrupted the happiness of 
these faithful people. First the softest little voice 
was missing at the family altar, and the angels 
bore the blessed little one to* the arms of the 
Saviour she loved and praised. 

Who does not know the anguish of the stricken 
mother's heart? Love to God above that of the 
child soon whispered submission ; yet the gentle 
Saviour* wept at the grave of a friend, thus sanc- 
tioning and hallowing the tears of bereavement. 
But the rod was kissed, — still trusting, still adoring 
and loving, she walks with patience and with faith 
the road that leads her to her darling's blest abode. 
Scarce was the bleeding sorrow healed, scarce were 
the mourning circle accustomed to the silence of 
that cherub voice, and taught to know it still in 
brighter realms, warbling its Saviour's praise, 
when again was the rod uplifted, — the next in 
guileless innocence is taken from the place of 
praise to swell the strains above of glory to the 
Lamb. Again the rod is kissed, — the submissive 
heads are bowed in love and adoration, the quiet, 
trusting walk resumed of duty and benevolence. 

10 



110 EOME. 

What a lovely exhibitiou of the power of faith in 
the promises of God ! 

At that great day wheD God will make up hia 
jewels, think you, gentle reader, the blessedness, 
the rewards of this mother, will not a million of 
times outweigh the poor, pitiful triumph of her 
who has voluntarily relinquished these glorious 
aspirations for the vain applause of the world, so 
soon to pass away ! Heed not, like this deluded one, 
the promptings of the enemy of souls. Aspire not 
to things beyond the sphere in which it has pleased 
your Creator to assign your duties and your joys. 
The contented fulfillment of those legitimate duties 
will bless you with far more elevated and pure re- 
wards than all the hollow plaudits of the world, 
when you may have abandoned your true sphere 
in life, and accomplished all your ambition pro- 
posed, more difficult, more daring, and, ^s you 
fondly dream, more elevating to your nature. The 
elevation thus obtained is only that "bad emi- 
nence attained by him who rebelled against his 
Maker, and fell to rise no more." 

In this age of ceaseless advancement, when di- 
vine Christianity is steadily lengthening her cords 
and strengthening her stakes, when the mighty 
revolutions through which the world is now passing 
point indubitably to the second advent of its glori- 
ous Founder, let not her who was last at his cross 
and first at his sepulcher, her whom He has raised 
from the degradation of heathenism and placed 
with the noble of all lands, barter her precious 
birthright, which was purchased at the price of His 



HOME. Ill 

own blood, for a poor, pitiful mess of pottage, pre- 
sented to her lips by the same evil spirit who first 
deprived her of her innocence, then reduced her 
to the state of an outcast from paradise and the 
favor of her beneficent Creator. 

The inspired apostles of the Lord give us all 
necessary guidance in fulfilling the will of our 
heavenly Master. St. Paul tells us, "Let the 
woman learn in silence, with all subjection. But 
I suflfer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp 
authority over the man, but to be in silence; for 
Adam was first formed, and then Eve : and Adam 
was not deceived, but the woman being deceived 
was in the transgression." 

St Peter also saith, " Likewise, ye wives, be in 
subjection to your own husbands; that if any 
obey not the word, they also may without the 
word be won by the conversation of the wives; 
while they behold your chaste conversation coupled 
with fear. Whose adorning let it not be that out- 
ward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing 
of gold, or of putting on of apparel ; but let it be 
the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not 
corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet 
spirit, which is in the sight of Qod of great price. 
For after this manner in the old time the holy 
women also, who trusted in God, adorned them- 
selves, being in subjection unto their own hus- 
bands: even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling 
him lord : whose daughters ye are, as long as ye 
do well, and are not afraid with any amazement. 
Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according 



112 HOME, 

to knowledge, giving honor unto the wife, as unto 
the weaker vessel, .and as being heirs together of 
the grace of life; that your prayers be not hin- 
dered.'* 

I am well aware that the so called strong minded 
portion of my sex will call me pusillanimous for 
thus upholding the doctrine of woman's subjection 
to her natural superior ; but I beg such to remem- 
ber me as being a firm believer in the revelations 
of God through his divine Son, our Saviour, Jesus 
Christ. My Counsellor can give no other instruc- 
tions than those afforded by Him and his own 
apostles, at the same time praying for the mercy 
of God to ^* those rebellious" into whose hands 
this book may chance to fall, that they may be 
guided into the way of truth and peace. 

Position op Woman. — " The order of the uni- 
verse demands headship: the head of Christ is 
God, the head of man is Christ, the head of woman 
is man. The peace of the family and of society 
depends upon the recognition by woman of man's 
headship, and her ready acquiescence in it, sub- 
mitting herself to the revealed will of God. 

" The question, then, which the Christian woman 
will ask herself is not, what can I do in my own 
judgment? but, what has God assigned me to do? 
Society in all its departments is of his organiza- 
tion, what place has He given me to fill in it? 
She will not engage in vain eflforts to set aside 
God's ordinances, but will rejoice in the honor 
wherewith the Son of God has honored her, in that 
her nature, in its distinctive features, sets forth 



HOME, 113 

forms of the divine character that could in no 
other way be so fittingly expressed: gentleness, 
patience, humility, submission. These are hateful 
words to the ^ strong-minded,' but they signify 
virtues dear to God. 

" If any Christian woman, with her Bible in her 
hand, have been deluded into following such 
leaders, they are like to find ere long that they 
have been playing into the hands of the most bitter 
enemies of their Lord, and opening gates to sen- 
sualism, which they can never again close." — 
Churchman^ Hartfardj Conn. 



The Epistle to the Romans teaches that all men 
are sinners, in many cases from ignorance of what 
is right, and in many from stress of temptation, so 
that neither Greek nor Jew can boast of his own 
righteousness. For it is not " by works of right- 
eousness" that we are to be considered and treated 
as righteous persons, but through a "faith that 
works by love;'' that faith or belief which is not a 
mere intellectual conviction, but a controlling pur- 
pose or spiritual principle which habitually con- 
trols the feelings and conduct. And so long as 
there is this constant aim and purpose to obey 
Christ in all things, mistakes in judgment as to 
what is right and wrong are pitied, " even as a 
father pitieth his children," when from ignorance 
they run into harm. And even the most guilty 
transgressors are freely forgiven when truly re- 
pentant and faithfully striving to forsake the error 

10* 



114 HOME, 

of their ways. Moreover, this tender and pitying 
Saviour is the Almighty One who rules both this 
and the invisible world, and who '* from every evil 
still educes good." This life is but the infant 
period of our race, and much that we call evil, in 
his wise and powerful ruling may be for the 
highest good of all concerned. 

The blessed Word also cheers us with pictures 
of a dawning day to which we are approaching, 
when a voice shall be heard under the whole 
heavens, saying, "Alleluia" — *'the kingdoms of 
this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord 
and of his Christ, and he shall reign for ever and 
ever." And " a great voice out of heaven" will 
proclaim, '* Behold, the tabernacle of God is with 
men, and he shall dwell with them, and they shall 
be his people. And God himself shall be with 
them, and be their God. And God shall wipe 
away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be 
no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying; neither 
shall there be any more pain ; for the former things 
are passed away.'* 

The author still can hear the echoes of early life, 
when her father's voice read to her listening mother 
in exulting tones the poet's version of this millen- 
nial consummation, which was the inspiring vision 
of his long life-labors — a consummation to which 
all their children were consecrated, and which 
some of them may possibly live to behold. 

" O scenes surpassing fable, and yet true I 
Scenes of accomplished bliss I which who can see, 
Though but in distant prospect, and not feel 
His soul refreshed with foretaste of the joy I 



HOME, 115 

*' Sivers of gladness water all the earth, 
And clothe all climes with beauty ; the reproach 
Of barrenness is past. The fruitful field 
Laughs with abundance ; and the land once lean. 
Or fertile only in its own disgrace, 
Exults to see its thistly curse repealed. 

" Error has no place : 
That creeping pestilence is driven away ; 
The breath of heaven has chased it. In the heart 
No passion touches a discordant string, 
But all is harmony and love. Disease 
Is not ; the pure and uncontaminate blood 
Holds its due course, nor fears the frost of age. 

" One song employs all nations; and all cry, 
* Worthy the Lamb, for he was slain for us I' 
The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks 
Shout to each other ; and the mountain-tops 
From distant mountains catch the fiying joy ; 
Till, nation after nation taught the strain, 
Earth rolls the rapturous hosanna round. 

<^ Behold the measure of the promise filled I 
See Salem built, the labor of our God 
Bright as a sun the sacred city shines ; 
All kingdoms and all princes of the earth 
Flock to that light ; the glory of all lands 
Flows into her: unbounded is her joy. 
And endless her increase. Thy rams are there, 
N^baioth, and the flocks of Kedar there ; 
The looms of Ormus and the mines of Ind, 
And Saba's spicy groves pay tribute there. 

" Praise is in all her gates : upon her walls. 
And in her streets, and in her spacious courts, 
Is heard salvation. Eastern Java there 
Kneels with the native of the farthest west ; 
And Ethiopia spreads abroad the hand. 
And worships. Her report has traveled forth 



116 HOME, 

Into all lands. From every clime tbcy come 

To see thy beauty, and to share thy joy, 

O Zion 1 an assembly such as earth 

Saw never, such as Ueaven stoops down to see T' 



Nothing but Leaves. 

Nothing but leaves ! The spirit grieves 

Over a wasted life ; 
Sins committed while conscience slept, 
Promises made but never kept ; 

Hatred, battle, and strife, 
Nothing but leaves I 

Nothing but leaves I No garnered sheaves 

Of life's fair ripened grain. 
Words, idle words, for earnest deeds. 
We sow our seeds, lo I tares and weeds, 

To reap, with toil and pain. 
Nothing but leaves I 

Nothing but leaves I Memory weaves 

No veil to cover the past, 
As we return our weary way. 
Counting each lost and misspent day, 

We find sadly at last 
Nothing but leaves I 

And shall we meet the Master so? 

Bearing our withered leaves ? 
The Saviour looks for perfect fruit ; 
We stand before Him humbled, mute, 

Waiting the word He breathes, 
Nothing but leaves I 



I».A.I6T II. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

" Whether, therefore, ye eat or drink, or whatsoeyer ye do, do all to 
the glory of God." — Cor. x. 31. 

Doubtless some may consider this an extraor- 
dinary motto at the commencement of this part 
of my Counsellor, before they have time to see the 
bearing it has upon the subject-matter in hand, 
but when they can do so the wonder will vanish. 

Suppose, by the instructions of the Counsellor, a 
young housewife has been enabled to prepare her 
meals after such an excellent, acceptable manner so 
as to strike the eye of her husband agreeably, just 
as he comes to the table and lifts up his hands to 
ask a blessing, will not his heart be better attuned 
to thanks and praise than if the reverse were be- 
fore him ? Would he not be more inclined to give 
glory to God, not only for this happy result of the 
wife's eflEbrts, but for the exemplary wife herself? 
Will not the wife be acting for the glory of God 
when she has produced such pleasant and pious 
feelings in her husband? Most assuredly. 

But another may ask. How can it be for the 
glory of God that your* housewife is instructed to 
prepare such a number and variety of expensive 

(117) 



118 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER, 

diahes ? Is not this rather to the detriment of that 
holy cause? I answer, no. And let the objector 
first ask himself this question : Who created and 
placed in the reach of his rational creatures all 
these good and pleasant things, the combination 
of which, according to the best modes, compose 
those expensive preparations? Was it not our 
beneficent Creator? And did He not bless us 
with physical and moral abilities to well employ 
his gifts without abusing them ? And what possible 
reason have we for supposing it is not his will that 
we should use them in the most agreeable way ? 
Surely there is none. 

And then let it be borne in mind that a prudent, 
faithful wife will never prepare such expensive 
dishes in excess, which makes the sin, but will 
take care to select such for her ordinary table as 
will correspond with her husband's means. She 
will never overstep the bounds of her allotted 
funds for household expenses; nay, she will rather 
fall within them, as much as she can, consistently 
with the wishes of her husband and the reasonable 
enjoyment of the gifts of God. 

From these prudent savings she may lay by the 
means to indulge in more costly preparations for 
her table on holy days, social entertainments, and 
bountiful charities. At Christmas, Easter, and 
other joyful occasions, wedding entertainments, etc. 
— these are surely occasions on which she may in- 
nocently employ her skill and ingenuity in render- 
ing her table an object of rejoicing and praise; a 
scene of rational enjoyment, where all the superior 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER, \\Q 

endowments of mind as well as body may be cher- 
ished and invigorated; where good will, good hu- 
mor, good cheer may combine, to return thanks to 
the bountiful Giver of all good ; where the eye may 
be entertained with beautiful arrangements, the 
soul with the harmony of amiable, social feelings, 
as well as the taste with those exquisite, delicate 
combinations of the bounties of Nature she has 
learned so well to perfect. All these things should 
be so enjoyed as to redound to the glory of God. 

Such rules as the following will be found profit- 
able in housewifery : 

1. Rise early, have your meals at regular hours, 
and be punctual in engagements. 

2. Keep your house scrupulously clean and reg- 
ularly aired every day. 

3. Assemble all your family regularly, morning 
and evening, to praise and thank God for His 
goodness. 

4. Be kind, be quiet, be cheerful, be forbearing 
and forgiving. 

5. Be just and generous. 

Never use inferior articles of food. Buy the best 
flour, butter, lard, bacon, etc. 

An inferior article will spoil your cooking, and 
be sure to be used wastefully. Bad bread will be 
thrown in the slops; bad butter will spoil your 
cookery; and you are apt to use it profusely, so as 
to get through with it, — so with all other inferior 
articles. The best way is to buy the best and use 
it economically. If it is butter, make such dishes 



120 BREAKFAST, 

as will not require it ; or, use those which do, sel- 
dom. There are numbers of good receipts in this 
book not needing butter. 

Always try flour, butter, etc. before making a 
purchase, and you will save yourself much annoy- 
ance, as well as discomfort and mortification. You 
can never make good things of bad ingredients. 

Accustom your daughters, while growing up, to 
aid you in culinary matters. Take care, before they 
marry, that they know how to perform all the duties 
of a housewife. Otherwise they may be unhappy, 
unprofitable wives, and more of a burden than a 
pleasure and comfort to their husbands. Do not 
fancy it unrefined for young ladies to enter the 
culinary domain. No duty is unrefined. 



BEEAKFAST. 



If possible, be present when your breakfast-table 
is set, — at least for some time after you have in- 
stalled a new servant. 

It will prevent carelessness. 

Take care that every article is wiped with a fresh, 
clean towel, and that a snowy, glossy cloth is laid 
to receive them. 

But the first thing to be observed on entering 
your breakfast-room should be, that your servant 
is properly and neatly attired; that he or she is 
bright and glossy in complexion, — silencing, at a 
glance, the suspicion that water and soap were lack- 
ing at their toilet duties. 



BREAKFAST, 121 

Observe that the hair is combed, braided or tur- 
baned, in a careful and tasteful manner, as the case 
may be. 

Take care that your servants are provided with 
a basin and towel, in some convenient place, that 
there may be no excuse for carelessness in this im- 
portant particular. 

Be sure your coftee-pot and teapot are scalded 
(inside) with boiling water, before receiving their 
destined contents. 

Light your spirit-lamp before sitting down. 

If it is winter, take care that your plates and dishes 
are warmed. lustructyour cook to dish up the break- 
fast as speedily as possible, so that part of it may not 
be getting cold on the table while the rest is coming. 

A number of dishes should be brought in at once 
on a waiter, — covered, of course, from the air. 

Before the bell is rung, see that every requisite 
is on the ta];>le, as it is invariably considered an 
evidence of poor housekeeping to call for such after 
the family are seated. 

For a guest to do this, is a decided indignity to 
the mistress of the house; and, from a member of 
the family, it assumes the character of a reproach. 
Avoid these mortifications by your own forethought 
and regularity. 

As soon as you rise from the table, while your 
servant is cleaning the knives and forks, look over 
and count your spoons, great and small. If any of 
them are discolored with egg, rub them, before the 
final washing, with a little fine q,shes, or wash them 
in soda water. 

11 



122 BREAKFAST. 

Now look over your casters, — wipe and replenish 
tUem ; then your salt-cellars. Take the salt out, wash 
your cellars, rub all the lumps out of the salt in a 
plate, with a knife-blade, fill your cellars again, 
smooth over the salt with your knife-blade, and 
see that the salt-spoons are in order. 

These daily duties are indispensable, if you wish 
to have everything in order, and nothing lost by 
neglect. 

Now call in your cook, and make all necessary 
arrangements for every meal in the next twenty-four 
hours. Thus you will be relieved of much house- 
hold duty, and secure to yourself many agreeable 
leisure hours; that is, provided your cook has 
been previously well trained and taught, — other- 
wise, attend as much as possible to everything, 
rather than subject your husband and friends to 
'bad cookery. 

Count and clean your silver once a week, as well 
as your knives and forks. Whiting, mixed with 
vinegar and water, will make your silver very bright. 
Polish it,. when dry, with a soft, old cotton rag or 
buckskin. Take care to rub also with whiting the 
handles of your knives. 

To CLEAN Knives. — Take a bit of woolen rag, 
scrape over it some rottenstone, then drop on it a 
lump of pure olive oil or lard. Rub your knives 
with this till all the discoloration is gone, then wipe 
or wa»h them ; after which, immediately polish 
them with a dry flannel and whiting. 

Be careful to wash your cups, saucers, etc. in good 
strong soapsuds, and rinse them in pure water. 



BREAKFAST, 123 

Knives that you do pot use every day, grease, and 
wrap in tissue-paper. 

Your dining-room servant should be provided 
with at least two dozen cup-towels, one dozen knife- 
towels, and half a dozen dusters. 

Have these nicely washed, ironed, and locked 
up, and place as raany of each in the hands of your 
servant, daily, as you find he or she will need. 

See that these are duly returned at night, washed 
and ironed, to be placed with their fellows under 
lock and key. 

The duster must, of course, form an exception, 
as it will be needed early in the morning. 

Count all your towels every Monday morning. 
All that have been in use during the previous week 
should be washed and bojled in weak lye. This is 
necessary to preserve their clear complexion. 

Table- and bed-linen, as well as clothes of all 
kinds, should be counted weekly. 

To CLEAN Brasses. — If they have become dark 
and rusty, rub them first with wet brickdust, and 
then with rottenstone and water; after which, re- 
peat the rubbing with a dry woolen rag and dry 
rottenstone. Turpentine and oils or acids are bad 
in many respects. Never use them. 

Coffee* 

Choose the best and oldest coftee. Mocha is gen- 
erally considered the best, but old Government 
Java is worthy to contest the prize. This, however, 
is a matter of taste. 

Washing coflfee, before browning, is unnecessary, 



124 BREAKFAST, 

as the exterior coating, with all attached to it, is 
removed in browning. If you prefer washing, let 
the coffee become thoroughly dried before it is 
browned. Pick out all the stones. 

Instruct your cook to allow no other duty to in- 
terfere while she is engaged in browning coffee. If 
the stirring is discontinued for awhile, the grains at 
the bottom of the pan become brown, while those 
on the surface are still uncolored. Now the brown- . 
ing must continue till the light grains become 
brown, and by this time the grains first browned be- 
come black, — that is, burned to charcoal, — in which 
remains neither strength nor taste. In such a case, 
would it not be quite as well to throw away one- 
half of your coffee before browning and toast the 
remainder properly? I am sure of it. 

Coffee should be toasted to a deep-brown color, 
but never till black. When coffee approaches the 
right degree of browning, and the aroma begins to 
rise, a lump of butter, as large as a hazel-nut, should 
be stirred in, to arrest its escape. As soon as it is 
done, the browned coffee should be put away in a 
canister with a closely-fitting lid. . If all is ground 
immediately, there is the greater reason to keep it 
from the air, as, after being ground, the aroma the 
more easily escapes. • 

But the very best mode of making coffee is to 
parch and grind it just before making. 

To MAKE Clear Coffee. — You may use the 
white of an egg or a bit of isinglass. Mix your 
coffee to the consistency of paste, with cold water 
and either of the above clarifiers, then pour on 



BREAKFAST, 125 

boiling water. Allow your coffee to boil twenty 
minutes before sending to table. A cupful of 
ground coffee will make three pints of the beverage 
— a coffeecup. 

A French strainer makes far the best coffee, and 
is the most convenient. 

If the French strainer were adopted in public 
houses and steamboats, and its careful management 
attended to, there would be no complaints made, 
as now, of bad coffee. It is a common thing to 
hear gentlemen call out, "Here, waiter, if this is 
coffee, bring me tea; if it is tea, bring me coffee T* 

If a proprietor values the reputation of his house, 
or the attractiveness of his table, he should give 
such things as these his personal attention occasion- 
ally, — instructing his housekeeper according to 
some approved mode of preparation of his coffee, 
tea, and the like. Few persons enjoy their break- 
fast if the coffee is indifferent ; and where it is known 
good coffee may be found, there the guests will 
gather. 

A friend comes occasionally to take a cup of cof- 
fee with the author, saying "that at the hotel is 
horrid." 

To have your coffee in perfection, put it in the 
strainer about an hour before it is to be used. As 
soon as it is dripped it should be transferred to the 
table coffeepot or urn, after having been brought 
to the point of boiling. The pot or urn should be 
first scalded well. If your company is large, and 
you have but one strainer, as soon as the portion 
prepared is removed to the table coffeepot, empty 

11* 



126 BREAKFAST, 

out the grounds and put in a fresh supply of coffee, 
drip it as before, and serve a second supply: it will 
be all the better coming in while the breakfast 
progresses. 

Be very careful that all the tins belonging to your 
strainer be well and thoroughly cleansed in hot 
soapsuds, and well rinsed in clear, clean water, then 
sunned. If water is allowed to remain in your 
strainer, a very disagreeable taste is imparted to the 
coffee. It should be put away dry. A kettle lined 
with porcelain is a most excellent vessel to keep 
dripped coffee in till needed, if prepared too soon. 
Directions generally come with the strainer. 

Tour urn or coffeepot should be kept with the 
same care as your strainer, — clean, dry, and well 
sunned or aired. 

If you wish to have coffee and tea in perfection, 
supply yourself with conveniences to prepare them 
yourself on the table. If you use gas, it is very easy 
to obtain a drop-light with stands for the urns or 
coffeepots. 

If you do not use gas, use a spirit-lamp for the 
purpose. 

Tea. 

Green or black tea, to be drunk in perfection, 
rmist be made with boiliag water, — boiling at the 
time of being poured on the tea ; and black tea is 
the better for boiling some ten minutes. 

Do not trust this operation to servapts, as it is 
very common, with most of them, to believe that 
water ame boiled is boiling water. Although the 
kottle, on boiling, is removed from the fire so far 



BREAKFAST, 127 

as entirely to stop the ebullition of the water, it is 
thought nevertheless boiling water, and tea is made 
of such, in most cases, if the eye of the mistress is 
not upon it. 

Of best green tea three teaspoonfuls will be suf- 
ficient for six persons, though if you wish tea for 
one, a spoonful will be needed. For black tea a 
larger proportion will be necessary, perhaps double. 

If a silver teapot is used, the tea should first be 
made in an earthen pot, and kept at boiling heat 
near the fire till about to be served ; then the silver 
pot should be scalded with boiling water, and the 
tea immediately transferred into it and served. 

Three things it would be well to avoid in tea,— 
tea of inferior quality, weak tea, and cold tea: un- 
less persons desire iced tea, — then it should be well 
iced. Tepid tea is nauseous, especially if weak. 

Chocolate. 

Grate into your stewpan two ounces of chocolate 
or cocoa, add sufficient hot water to make a smooth 
paste, then pour on it a pint of boiling water. Set 
the stewpan on the fire and let it boil, stirring it 
frequently ; then pour on it half a pint of sweet new 
milk. Boil again for ten minutes, and it is ready 
for use. Add sugar and cream, if you like, at the 
table. 

Yapon. 

This is a shrub, growing on the sand-banks of the 
coast of North Carolina. It is cut in August, boughs 
and leaves, into small portions, then laid in the sun 
till partially dried, when it is placed in a heated 
brick oven, and thoroughly dried and browned. 



128 BREAKFAST, 

It is now ready for use, and is prepared thus : 
Boil a large handful of the yapon in a quart of 
water for fifteen minutes, then remove it to your 
teapot, and drink it with sugar and cream. 

The flavor is very pleasant, — very much like 
black tea. 

Cream and Milk. 

Cream for coffee should be taken from milk of 
the previous night. 

In summer your milk should be kept in a cool 
place, if not on ice, so as to have it sweet for coffee 
in the morning. If cream is sour, it is not fit for 
coffee or tea. 

Boiled milk may be used as a substitute, though 
sweet cream is far preferable. 

Sagar, 

Clean, clear brown sugar is very good in coffee, 
but for green tea crushed or loaf is most agreeable. 

Keep your sugars well covered, as often a dis- 
agreeable foreign taste is given to your coftee or 
tea from substances which have been admitted 
through carelessness. 

Batter* 

Your butter should be fresh and sweet. If you 
make your own butter, be sure and press out all 
the milk and wash it well with pure water, taking 
care again to press it dry, and then add nice, fine 
salt and a little powdered white sugar. 

Scald your butter-print with boiling water, and 
immediately immerse it in cold water. This will 
prevent the butter from sticking. 



FEASTS. 129 



TABIOnS MODES OF PBEFABINO YEASTS AFD 
BBEADS, MUFFINS, OAKES, Eto. 

A Mode of Originaling Yeast, 

Take 1 oz. of hops. 
" 4 " white sugar. 
" 3 " salt. 
« 8 " flour. 
" 1 qt. mashed Irish potatoes. 
" 3 " cold water. 
Simmer the hops and water together till the water 
is reduced to two quarts aud a pint. Then strain 
and divide the liquor, placing half in a vessel with 
the flour, sugar, and salt, and half in another vessel 
containing the mashed potatoes. Beat each portion 
twenty minutes, when stir all well together, and 
put it away in a j ug to ferment. Shake it frequently. 
It will be ready for use in twenty-four hours. Two 
tablespoonfuls, or half a gill, will be suflicient for 
a quart of flour. 

Hop Yeast. — Boil a handful of hops in a pint of 
water till reduced one-third ; then pour your hop- 
water, while boiling, through a sieve or colander, 
on two large spoonfuls of sifted flour. Stir the 
mixture till smooth, let it cool to the warmth of 
new milk, then add a cupful of well-risen yeast aud 
a thimbleful of soda. 

Put your yeast into a clean, strong jug, well 
stopped, in a cool place. If you have no very cool 
pllace, stop it loosely. 

Dry Yeast. — After making your yeast as above 
directed, when it is very light pour it into a tray 



130 VEAsrs. 

of sifted corn-meal ; make it into a rery stiff dongh, 
and, if in winter, set it to rise as you would a'loaf 
of bread, and, when it becomes full of cracks, it is 
light; then sift meal over a clean, dry tray, scatter 
your dough loosely over it, and set it in a cool place 
to dry. Stir it about frequently, and have it to dry 
as quickly as possible, or it will be either sour or 
mouldy. When thoroughly drj', put it in a paper 
bag, and hang it up in a draught of air, where it will 
be dry. If it is in summer, scatter the dough as 
soon as you make it, as it may sour in the loaf 
before spreading 

I have instructed all my neighbors to make yeast 
cakes in this way, but notwithstanding, scarcely a 
day passes that some one of them does not send to 
me for dry yeast, saying that theirs is sour. This 
arises from carelessness in drying their yeast. It 
should be stirred about frequently while drying, 
and moved to a dry tray. 

Potato Yeast. — Take six large white Irish po- 
tatoes, wash them clean, then boil them till soft in 
two quarts of pure water. Peel, and mash them to 
a fine, smooth pulp ; then strain a quart of the water 
in which they have been boiled (boiling hot) through 
a sieve, on to a teacupful of sifted flour. Pour a 
little, at first, and mix it smoothly with the flour; 
then add the whole quantity. Now add your mashed 
potatoes, a good spoonful of sugar, and last of all, 
after the mixture is cold, a teacupful of well-risen 
yeast. Put your new-made yeast into a clean, strong 
jug, and, having corked it loosely, set it in a cool 
place ; or you may use less water, and make dry 
yeast, as before directed. 



YEASTS. 131 

Make fresh dry yeast every week. It is said'that 
the principle of fermentation, in yeast, is a minflte 
fungus or mushroom with vegetable life, and when 
kept too long in a dry state it dies, and the prin- 
ciple is lost. If only a portion of these mushrooms 
live, your bread cannot rise to the full; thus many 
careless or ignorant housekeepers eat inferior bread. 

Always save a portion of your yeast to begin a 
new batch with. 

Sponge. — Suppose you wish rolls for breakfast. 
About six o'clock the previous evening dissolve a 
spoonful of dry yeast (for every quart of flour you 
wish to use) with milk-warm water, in some con- 
venient vessel with a cover, add flour suflicient to 
make a pretty thick batter, and set the mixture to 
rise till nine o'clock ; then make up your rolls. 

If your cook has sufficient time to make fresh 
potato yeast every morning after breakfast, and if she 
has sufficient ji>dgment and care to keep it in the 
proper temperature, she may furnish you with 
splendid bread and rolls for breakfast next morning. 
It is only for the convenience of the thing that jug 
or dry yeast should be at all made. Neither will 
make as perfect bread as yeast made every twenty- 
four hours. Save a little each time to begin with 
next morning. 

Fresh Potato Yeast. — Boil two good-sized po- 
tatoes and mash them smoothly, pass them through 
a colander; then pour a little warm water on them 
gradually, stirring till well mixed and blood-warm ; 
then add a spoonful of sugar and a gill of yeast. 
Set it to rise, in a maderately warm place in winter. 



132 BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

and a cool place in sammer. At nine o'clock at 
night make up your bread, as in No. 1 Premium 
Bread of this book. 



My PremioDi Bread No* 1* 

Sift three quarts of best white flour into a tray 
or pan ; take therefrom three spoonfuls of flour, 
and scald it with boiling water. Cool this paste 
with three spoonfuls of new milk and a little cold 
water ; then add an egg^ a tablespoonful of sugar, 
and one of salt. 

Now make an opening in the center of your tray 
of flour, pour therein the above mixture, with a cup 
of well-risen yeast, add sufficient water to form a 
moderately stiff dough, and knead it well. 

The water should be blood-warm in cold weather 
and cold in summer. 

Put your bread to rise in a tin bucket with a 
closely-fitting lid. It will not do so well to cover 
it with a cloth ; in this case a thick, hard crust will 
form on it, which must be taken off, and this is a 
waste. Besides, in the covered bucket it will rise 
sooner and more uniformly. 

By long practice I have discovered three good 
tests by which to ascertain when bread is sufficiently 
light. 

Ist. It should be at least twice its original size. 

2d. To the touch it should feel like a loosely- 
stuffed cotton cushion. 

3d. When touched suddenly on one side it should 
shake throughout the whole mass. 

Now mould out your loaves or rolls; let them 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 133 

rise as before, with the three tests. Wet them over 
with cold water, and bake immediately^ if you wish 
your bread sweet and in perfection. Delay will 
render it tasteless or sour. Bake slowly. 

"When you think your bread is done, strike it 
with the hand. If the sound is hollow and clear, 
you have judged rightly; if dull and heavy, return 
it to the oven, as, if you allow it to become cool, it 
will be of no avail to attempt its completion, — ^your 
cake is inevitably dough. 

Take care that the whole is covered with a firm, 
light-brown crust. 

Premium Bread No. 2« 

Is made by the same process as the other, leaving 
out the sugar, milk, and eggs. 

Twist Loaf* 

Take a pound of well-risen dough ; divide it in 
half. Roll each piece under the hands, on a board 
or table, taking care to have them large in the cen- 
ter and gradually smaller at the ends. Each piece 
should be about ten inches long. Cover these pieces 
of dough with a cloth, and leave them to rise. 
When ready for baking, place them across each 
other thus : 




Then twist each opposite end together, beginning 

12 



1-J4 BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

from the middle each way, when your twist will be 
complete, thus; 




Salt-Yeast Bread* 

Quite early in the morning beat up a thick batter 
of flour, warm water, salt, and a couple of table- 
spoonfuls of Indian meal. Set it in a warm place 
for four or five hours. If not sufliciently light, stir 
it and set it to rise awhile longer. When light, 
make out your dough, and set your bread to rise in 
a Dutch oven. Bake when light. This yeast will 
only answer for summer. 

Six Rolls* 

Put a quart and a half of sifted flour into a tin 
bucket, make an opening in the center of the flour, 
pour into it a cup of well-risen yeast, a tablespoon- 
ful of sugar and half the quantity of salt, with a pint 
of milk or water. Stir till a smooth batter is formed 
in the center of the flour, cover it with flour, and 
leave it to rise till the covering of flour is cracked, 
showing it to be light. Now knead the dough and 
divide it into rolls. Put them in a deep, well-greased 
pan, and suffer them to rise again till very light. 
Bake them in a moderate oven. They should be 
of a light-brown color all over. Some persons add 
butter or lard. A small teaspoonful is suflicient. 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 186 

Bran Bread. 

One pint of bran. 

" " Indian meal. 

" " wheat flour, middlings. 
Made as Premium Bread No. 2. 
To be baked thoroughly. 

A thimbleful of soda should be added to the 
dough. 

Lady Rolls. 

One quart of flour. 

One spoonful of butter. 

One egg. 

One spoonful of white sugar. 

One cup of yeast (well risen). 

Half teaspoonful of salt. 

Add, as in No. 1, milk and water sufficient to 
make a pliable dough. 

Set your rolls to rise overnight, make them out 
quite early in the morning, in round balls, and then 
roll them on the table to an oval form ; cover them 
to rise again till half an hour before breakfast, when 
bake them in a slow oven, of a light-brown color. 
Set a dish cover over them for ten minutes to 
make the crust soft, if you prefer it so. 

Do not leave them in the oven a moment after 
they are done, or they will become hard and crusty. 

Rasped Rolls 

Are made as above, but allowed to be more deeply 
browned on the top, and the crust partially rasped 
off. 

These rolls are very handsome on a supper-table, 
and are delicious. They should be served cold. 



136 BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

Planters' Bread* 

Two quarts of best white flour. 

Six eggs, well beaten. 

One pint of sweet cream. 

One cup of well-riseu sponge. 

One small teaspoonful of salt. 

Two teaspoonfuls of sugar. 

Mix, and manage it entirely as Premium Bread 
No. 1 ; then bake, in two greased tins or earthen 
pans. Or you may bake in small, square, oblong 
pans, as rolls. 

Lemon Biscnits. 

Three spoonfuls of butter. 

Four eggs. 

A teacupful of sour milk. 

Two cups of white sugar, with grated lemon-peel. 

Flour sufficient to make a soft dough. 

Add a teaspoonful of soda before the flour is 
sifted, and pass both together through the sieve; 
roll out thin and cut them ; then bake in a mod- 
erate oven. 

Breakfast Bans. 

One pound of flour. 

Quarter pound of butter. 

Quarter pound of sugar (down weight). 

With rather more than half a pint of light sponge. 

Stir the butter and sugar to a cream, then add 
the sponge, with milk sufficient, when poured into 
the flour, to make a soft dough. Let the dough 
rise, then knead it a second time; roll it out an 
inch thick, and cut out the buns with a ring or 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC, 137 

cake-cutter : let them rise a second time, and bake 
them quickly. "When done, brush them over with 
sugar and water, and sift over them fine white sugar. 

Sandwiches. 

Have ready a first quality fresh loaf of bread and 
a very sharp knife. Butter the slices before cut- 
ting them oS the loaf, — it will butter the easier. 
Cut the slices very thin, then place on each buttered 
slice thin shavings of cold ham ; roll the slices up 
evenly, and place them in a plate till the pile is 
sufliciently high. 

These are very nice, and convenient for tea or 
supper. 

Dixie Rolls. 

Make No. 1 bread. When well risen, divide the 
dough into lumps that will fill a teacup ; roll them 
out into round, flat cakes ; double them in half, let 
them lie doubled up till light, then wet them with 
cold water, and bake them in a moderate oven. 
This will be an oval roll, with a seam lengthwise, 
which gives it the appearance of a grain of wheat. 

Ring Rolls. 

Mould out small round rolls ; lay them in rings, 
in a round pan, till one fills up the center ; let them 
rise well, and, after wetting them with cold water, 
bake them in a slow oven. 

Sponge Muffins. 

One quart and a half flour. 
Two eggs. 

12* 



188 BREAD, BOLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

One teaspoonfal of butter or lard. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

One teaapoonful of salt. 

One cup of well-risen yeast. 

Add water sufficient to make a soft dough, which 
will admit of being rolled out on a board without 
sticking. 

This quantity will make four muffins. 

Make the dough out into round balls, and flatten 
them with the rolling-pin till about the thickness 
of your little finger; allow them to rise again till 
twice their original thickness ; then bake, split, and 
butter them. 

These are excellent. Serve hot 

Toagh Maffins. 

These are made of simple bread dough, well risen. 

Take a piece of dough about the size of an ordi- 
nary orange, roll it out flat, say as thick as your 
little finger, cover your muffins with a cloth, and 
let them rise till quite as thick again as at first, then 
put them to bake on a griddle moderately heated. 
Turn them frequently. When done, split them 
open, and butter them while hot. Serve them im- 
mediately. 

Egg Moffins* 

Rub one teaspoonful of butter into a quart of 
sifted flour, then add three half pints of sweet milk 
and six eggs beaten very light; add a little salt, a 
* teaspoonful of soda, and two of cream of tartar or 
strong vinegar. If you have buttermilk, leave out 
the acids above mentioned. Ilalf a cupful of but- 
termilk will be sufficient in the sweet milk. 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 139 

Scotch Cakes* 

Two quarts of flour. 

One large tablespoonful of butter. 

One cup and a half of milk. 

One cup of well-risen yeast. 

Two eggs and half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Combine all these ingredients into a soft dough 
overnight, and in the morning early roll out the 
dough and make it into thin biscuits, of any size 
you fancy. Cover them, to rise a second time. 
When light, bake them quickly, and send to the 
breakfast-table, quite hot, from time to time. 

My Favorite Muffins 

Are made as Scotch cakes ; then divide the dough 
into eight pieces, roll them into round balls, flatten 
them with the rolling-pin, allow them to rise again, 
and bake them in a moderate oven. When done, 
— but with a soft crust, — split them, butter them 
well, and send them to table hot, in quick succes- 
sion, two at a time. 

Sweet Potato Biscnits* 

To half a pound of potatoes, boiled, mashed, and 
strained through a colander, add a tablespoonful 
of lard or butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and a quart 
of flour; then wet these up with as much milk as 
will make a pliable dough that will easily be rolled 
out on a board. When rolled out, cut your cakes 
or biscuits with a cutter, and bake them in a quick 
oven ; or you may add yeast, and set them to rise. 
They are good either way. 



140 BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

Cottage Bread. 

Make a quart of flour into a moderately stiflT 
dough, with a tablespoonful of butter, one of sugar, 
one egg, and a cup of well-risen yeast ; as usual, 
add a little salt. 

Make the dough into three cakes, roll them, and 
set them to rise. When light, bake them in a 
quick oven. 

Short Cakes. 

Mix half a pound of lard or butter with a pound 
of flour, add a little salt, and water sufficient to 
make a moderately stiff* dough. Roll it out several 
times, doubling it up in the intervals. Finally, roll 
it out into a sheet the usual thickness for such 
cakes ; cut them either round or square, and bake 
them in a quick oven. 

Buckwheat Cakes. 

Make a very thick batter of buckwheat flour and 
water, add a spoonful of yeast-meal or two spoon- 
fuls of well-risen sponge ; beat it a great deal with 
a wooden spoon. Set your jar in a warm place, 
where the batter will be sure to turn sour, and in 
the morning, just before you begin to bake your 
cakes, add a cup of new milk, with a teaspoonful 
of soda in it. Bake them brown. 

If you do not like soda, keep your cakes while 
rising in a cool place in summer, and in a moder- 
ately warm place in winter. Add the cup of milk 
in the morning just before baking. 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 141 

Brown Flour Cakes 

Are made in the same way as buckwheat cakes, 
with addition of a cup of Indian meal and flour. 

Breakfast Cream Muffins* 

Beat four eggs till very light, and stir them 
gradually into a quart of sour cream, with flour 
sufficient to make a stifle* batter, then add half a 
teaspoonful of soda, with a teaspoonful of salt, and 
bake them in muffin-rings. 

Southern Biscuits* 

To one quart of flour add a small tablespoonful 
of lard, and half a teaspoonful of salt. Mix the 
dough with water, as stifi* as possible, and knead it 
with the hands till pliable and smooth ; continue to 
knead it till it pops under every pressure of the 
hand. This is a test of its lightness. Then make 
balls of the dough about the size of an Qgg^ flatten 
them on the board with the rolling-pin, prick them 
in the center with a fork, and bake them in a quick 
oven. "When the edges are hard they are done, 
otherwise do not take them from the oven, or they 
will be undone and unwholesome. 

The labor of making these biscuits will be 
lessened by using the machine on page 142, which 
may be easily made by an ordinary carpenter. 

Mix the dough in a tray with the hand, then put 
it in the dough-trough at A, turn the crank C with 
the right hand, and push the dough toward the 
grooved cylinder with the other. The dough will 
pass under the roller or cylinder D to B ; then re- 



142 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC, 



verse the crank, and the dough will return to A, 
Continue this operation till your dough is very 
light, and make the biscuits as above directed. 





The cylinder may be taken out to clean. 

Crackers made in this way are very nice, if the 
dough is rolled out thin, and the crackers baked 
crisply. 

Sitgrieves Crackers. 

Rub into six pounds of flour one pound of fresh 
butter, then wet it with water suflicient to make a 
very stilf dough. Knead it well with the hands, as 
in the foregoing receipt, or pass it under the roller 
of your biscuit-machine till the dough becomes 
very light and pliable. If very light, the bulk will 
be increased, and there will be heard a frequent 
popping of the dough as it is worked. 

Another way to test its lightness is to dent the 
dough with your finger. If light, the dent will 
disappear on removing your finger. 



BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 143 

Daring the working a little dry flour should be 
added, from time to time, as you double up the 
dough. Cut your light dough into two-inch squares, 
roll them in the hand, flatten them with the rolling- 
pin, prick them in the center, and bake them in a 
quick oven. 

Cream Biscuits. 

Take a quart and a half of flour, add to it a tea* 
spoonful of soda and one of salt, put it in a tray, 
and pour in the middle half a pint of rich cream. 
If not sour, add a tablespoonful of good vinegar, 
then knead up the dough well with milk or water 
sufficient to make it moderately stiff*. Roll it out, 
and cut it with a ring or cake-cutter. Bake the 
biscuits in a quick oven ; do not allow them to re- 
main till hard. 

Soda Biscuits 

Are made in the same way, except that butter or 
lard is used instead of cream. Soda and some con- 
venient acid are necessary. Good cider-vinegar 
is best; three spoonfuls to one of soda. 

Light Biscuits 

Are made of simple bread dough, with the addition 
of lard or butter. Experience must decide the 
quantity. These should rise the second time, and 
be baked quickly, after wetting with cold water. 

Crisp Wafers. 

One pint of flour made into a pliable dough, with 
one ^gg^ a spoonful of lard or butter, and milk suf- 
ficient to make the dough ; a sprinkle of salt. 



144 BREAD, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

Work the dough well, make it into small, round 
balls, flatten them with a rolling-pin to the thin- 
ness of paper, if possible; lay them in the wiafer- 
irous, and bake them quickly. 

To Make Toast. 

Cut your bread in even slices, about half an inch 
thick. Have a clear coal fire; put your bread 
quite near it, so as to have it toasted quickly. 
When of a light brown turn it; brown in like 
manner the other side, and take it from the fire. 
If you desire dry toast, it is ready now; but if but- 
tered toast, dip the crusts in warm water quickly, 
butter it, and send it to table hot. To be used 
immediately, or it becomes hard and uninviting. 

If you wish milk-toast, have ready a pan of hot 
milk and butter, in which dip your slices as fast as 
toasted ; lay them in a covered dish evenly, and 
serve at once. 

Scalded Crackers. 

Scald a dish of crackers with pure boiling water, 
let them stand covered for a few minutes, then 
take out one at a time, butter it, and lay it in a 
warm, covered dish till the whole are buttered. 
Serve immediately. 

Crackers soaked in cold water and buttered are 
very nice for tea in summer. 

Waffles. 

One quart of flour. 
One quart of milk. 
Six eggs. 



MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC, 145 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Two tablespoonfuls of good light yeast. 

Mix, and beat all these ingredients well together, 
and set the waffles to rise at twelve o'clock in 
the day, for tea at seven. If for breakfast, mix 
overnight. 

If pains be taken to beat the eggs well, so that 
they are very light, the waffles may be compounded 
just before baking, without yeast. 

Rice Waffles No. 1. 

One cup of boiled rice, or rice-flour. 

One quart of milk. 

One teaspoonful of butter. 

Four eggs. 

A teaspoon half full of salt. 

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stift' froth, and 
mix the whole very evenly. Bake in waffle-irons, 
and butter before sending to table. If too thick to 
pour, add a little milk. 

Batter Cakes or Dabs No. 1. 

Take one pint of sifted Indian meal and one 
pint of boiled small hominy, make these into a 
batter, with three eggs well beaten, a little salt, 
and milk, to produce a proper consistency. 

Hominy Cakes. 

One quart of milk, a pint of sifted flour, a pint 
of soft-boiled small hominy, with two eggs, and a 
small spoonful of butter. Beat the batter till very 
light, and bake it as buckwheat cakes 

13 



146 MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC. 

Rice Waffles No. 2« 

Two cups of flour, three eggs, a cup and a half 
of soft-boiled rice, with milk sufficient to make a 
muffin-batter. Add a little salt, beat it well, and 
bake in waffle-irons. 

Sally-lnnn No* !• 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

One pint of milk, warmed, and 

Two ounces of butter melted in the milk. 

Three eggs. 

One cup of well-risen yeast. 

A spoonful of sugar. 

Beat all well together. Grease a baking pan, 
pour in the batter, and set it to rise. In summer 
make it at twelve o'clock, for tea; in winter, a<- 
nine. Observe that it is twice as high in the pan 
as before it began to rise ; then bake it, and when 
baked, serve it immediately. It spoils by standing. 

Sally-lunn No. 2 

Is made with the ingredients of No. 1, with just 
milk enough to make them into a soft dough, 
which work with the hand into a round loaf, and 
place it in a greased pan or earthen form to rise. 
When light, bake in a moderate oven, and turn 
out on a plate. Serve while hot; though, unlike 
No 1, this is good cold. 

Victoria Muffins. 

Half a pint of rich cream. 
One pint of milk. 



MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC. 147 

Six eggs. 

One quart of flour, with a little salt. 

A teaspoonful of soda; and if the cream and 
milk are sweet, add the usual portion of acid. 

Bake in rings or patty-pans. 

These muffins may be made with yeast ; but the 
milk should in this case be new and sweet, and 
instead of cream use a spoonful of fresh butter. 

Drop Maffins No. 1. 

Beat two eggs well, with a teaspoonful of sugar, 
one of melted butter, and a cup of sweet cream ; 
stir in as much flour as will make a batter stiff 
enough for a spoon to stand up in it ; add a little 
salt and a good cup of light yeast. 

Make these muflins the night before ; do not 
stir them in the morning before baking. Drop 
them by spoonfuls in a greased oven or on a 
griddle. They are very fine either way. 

Another, No. 2. 

One quart of flour, three eggs, a spoonful of 
lard, the same of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of good 
yeast, a little salt, and soda; add warm water 
sufficient to make so stiff a batter that a spoon 
will stand up in its center. 

Bake as for No. 1. 

Whigs. 

One pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of 
butter, half a pint of milk, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, half a cup of well-risen yeast, a little salt. 

To be baked in rings. If on a griddle, turn 
them ; if in an oven, do not. 



148 MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC. 

Binah Maffins* 

Six eggs. 

One quart of sweet milk. 

One light quart of flour. 

One spoonful of butter. 

A little salt. 

Warm the butter a little if the weather is cold, 
and beat it to a cream. Then, as you break your 
eggs, drop the yelk of each into the butter, beating 
it all the while till very light ; then add in small 
portions, alternately, the milk and flour, and last 
of all the whites of eggs, beaten as stiflTas possible. 
Cut them into the batter, gently, with a knife, and 
bake immediately. These are splendid muflins. 

Flannel Cakes No. 1. 

One quart of flour. 

Three spoonfuls of Indian meal. 

Three eggs. 

One teaspoonful of butter, melted in one pint of 
warm milk. 

One cup of yeast, or a spoonful of yeast-meal. 

Set these cakes where they will sour a little, 
then add soda sufficient to sweeten them. Bake 
on a hot, greased griddle, as buckwheat cakes. 

Flannel Cakes No. 2 

Are made when you have no time to let them rise 
with yeast. They may be baked as soon as made; 
but care should be taken to mix and beat them 
well. A teacup of buttermilk or three spoonfuls 
of good vinegar should be added, and a teaspoonful 
of soda to receipt No. 1. 



MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC, 149 

Barbadoes Muffins. 

Take a quart of flour, and make a stiflT batter 
with milk, add a cup of yeast (risen), four eggs, 
well beaten, a little salt, and a spoonful of melted 
butter ; beat the batter up well, and set it to rise 
at dinner-time, if you wish them for. tea. 

Bake them in muffin-rings, on a hot griddle. 
Turn them quickly when brown on one side. Fill 
your rings halffvll^ and they will rise to the top. 

Bnttermilk Cakes. 

Take a pint of buttermilk, and thicken it with 
flour to the consistency of buckwheat cakes, add a 
little salt, and a teaspoonful of soda. Bake rapidly 
on a greased griddle. 

Dabs No. 2. 

Scald a pint of Indian meal slightly, add a pint 
of sweet milk, and two eggs ; beat till very light. 
Bake on a greased griddle. 

Bryan Pone. 

One pint of sweet milk. 

One pint of sifted Indian meal. 

Six eggs, beaten separately till very light. 

One large spoonful of butter, rubbed into the 
meal while dry. Add a little salt. 

Mix all well together, and bake it in a well- 
greased pan, from which turn it out on a plate to 
serve. It requires a brisk fire. 

13* 



150 MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC. 

Battermilk Pone* 

Rub a BpoonFul of butter or lard into a quart of 
dry Indian meal, at night, and moisten it with a 
cup of buttermilk, and one of water; add a little 
salt ; let it remain till morning, then mix in a tea- 
Bpoonful of soda; pour your dough into a greased 
pan, and bake it as any other Indian bread. 

Rice Cakes* 

One pint of boiled rice, a teacup of flour, two 
eggs, a small spoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of 
salt, and milk sufficient to make a muffin-batter. 
Bake in greased tin plates. When done, turn out 
on a china plate. Serve hot. To be cut in slices, 
and eaten with butter. 

St. Charles Pone. 

One pint of sifted Indian meal. 

One pint of sour milk. 

One teaspoonful of butter. 

Two eggs. 

Half teaspoonful of soda. 

If your milk is sweet, add a teaspoonful of cream 
of tartar, or two of sharp vinegar. 

Beat the ingredients well together, and bake in 
a greased pan, from which turn it carefully on a 
plate, and serve hot. 

Crisp Maffins. 

One pint of sifted Indian meal. 
One pint of milk or cream. 
Two eggs. 



MUFFINS, CAKES, ETC. 151 

A teaspoonful of salt. 

A spoonful of butter or lard. 

Drop the batter in a hot, greased pan or oven by 
spoonfuls, taking care that your muffins do not 
touch. Let them bake till crisp and brown. 

Patty Muffins 

Are made in the same way as above, with the ad- 
dition of two eggs, soda, and cream of tartar. 
Bake in patty-pans. 

Crisp Johnny Cakes. 

Take a quart of Indian meal (sifted), rub into it 
a spoonful of butter or lard, then add a little salt, 
and water sufficient to make a moderately stiff 
dough. 

Wet a clean oaken board, and lay on your 
johnny cake carefully with the hands. Do not 
make it quite as large as the board. Place it 
before a good live-coal fire, on the long edge 
of the board, perpendicularly. To do this, it 
must be supported from behind by a brick or 
stone. 

When browned on the exposed side, the johnny 
cake must be turned, and when both sides are 
brown, it must be split through the middle, the 
soft part of it taken out, and then again it must he 
placed before the fire, and the inner sides browned 
till the whole is very crisp. 

Sweet Potato Johnny Cakes* 

Made as above, with th^ addition of half the 
quantity of mashed potatoes. 



152 BREAD, CAKES, ETC, 

Omit the splitting and crisping. Butter them, 
and eat them hot. 

Sweet Pone No* !• 

Have a stewpan with boiling water the over- 
night, sift Indian meal, and stir into the water till 
you have a smooth, thick mush ; add a little salt ; 
cover the stewpan till morning in a cool place. In 
the morning take the mush and knead it well with 
your hand, grease a pan, and put in the dough, 
smoothing it carefully on the top. Bake it in a hot 
oven till very brown, top, bottom, and sides. 

It should be a deep pan, and the pone should be 
turned out on a plate to serve. Cut it in slices as 
you would a pound cake, and eat it hot, with 
butter. 

If any of your pone is left from breakfast, it will 
be very nice cold for dinner. 

Thin Griddle Cakes. 

Moisten Indian meal into a soft dough that may 
be moulded with the hands ; make cakes about the 
size of a breakfast plate, by laying a lump on the 
middle of the griddle, and then with the hand flat- 
tening it out to its intended circumference. It 
should be barely half an inch thick. Bake on 
both sides, split, and butter. Serve as hot as pos- 
sible. These are excellent cakes. 

Sweet Pone No. 2. 

Take two quarts of sifted white Indian meal, 
pour over it a pint of boiling water, let it stand 



BREAD, CAKES, ETC. 158 

awhile to cool, then add a spoonful of salt, and 
cold water sufficient to make a moderately stift 
dough. Do this overnight, and cover it close, in 
a moderately warm place. In the morning, quite 
early, lay a couple of cabbage leaves in the bottom 
of a Dutch oven or spider, put in your pone, taking 
care to shape it nicely with the hands. Bake it 
slowly, but steadily, till your breakfast is all ready ; 
then serve it hot. 

This pone makes a very nice breakfast, with hot 
coflfee and sausages, particularly if you have sweet, 
fresh butter. 

Hoe Cake* 

Moisten Indian meal with cold water and a little 
salt; knead your dough well, to make it light. 
Bake on a hoe or griddle over a moderate fire; 
turn it often, till well browned on both sides. If 
you like you can add a little lard or butter. 

Boiled Bread. 

Scald your meal slightly, then knead the dough 
well with cold water, and a little salt. Make the 
dough stift', and roll the bread in the hand to 
smooth, even balls ; then, after flattening them a 
little, drop them in boiling water. An hour and a 
half will be sufficient. 



154 CURING MEATS, 



OUBIHa HEATS. 

Preliminaries. 

Choosb some sunny day in the beginning of 
winter, before you put up your bacon, to prepare 
your smoke-house for its reception. If your smoke- 
house is an old one, take everything out of it; 
search well for rats and other vermin. If you dis- 
cover signs of them, get a terrier, if possible ; dig 
up the floor and destroy their nests. Then, after 
fumigating with sulphur and red pepper, hang on 
the walls of the smoke-house at least half a dozen 
little bags filled with chloride of lime wet with 
vinegar. This will prevent the entrance of rats 
for a long time. Do this whenever you find signs 
of their presence in your smoke-house. 

Now that your smoke-house is ready, get a sugar 
or molasses hogshead, — one recently emptied, — 
have it sawed in half, and place each half in your 
smoke-house ready to pack your salted pork in. 

In this country, hogs are usually cut up in the 
same manner, that is, into heads, hams, shoulders, 
middlings, chines, backbones, and jowls. As soon 
as this is done, examine each piece, and trim oflTall 
the fat, which is not absolutely necessary to pre- 
serve the shape of the piece. Round oft' the large 
end of the hams. Here is much superfluous fat. 
Then do the same by the shoulders and middlings. 
The chine and backbone pieces should be divested 



cxmmo MEATS, 155 

of all the fat. The skins should all be saved for 
the souse ; boiled with the feet, and a head or two, 
they will make excellent souse-cheese. 

Have before you a large wooden tray, or shallow 
box, in which to salt your meat. To every ham 
and shoulder of your bacon allow 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

One tablespoonful of saltpeter. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

Half teaspoonful of red pepper. 

Quarter teaspoonful of soda. 

Mix all these in some capacious vessel, and with 
the hand rub the mixture well into every part of 
each piece. Remember, the hocks of both hams 
and shoulders should be rubbed thoroughly. Lay 
your hams and shoulders skin downward in one 
half-hogshead, then rub your middlings and jowls 
with what is left of the above mixture, and when 
all are well rubbed, then lay them by. Put a 
quantity of salt into your salting-tray or box, and 
rub your hams first thoroughly with salt, one after 
another, laying them skin downward in the second 
half-hogshead. Do this with the shoulders next, 
and then with the jowls and middlings, taking care 
to have a good layer of salt in the bottom of the 
hogshead, and every piece covered well with salt 
before being laid down. 

By rubbing the hams and shoulders first a good 
deal of saltpeter, etc. falls into the tray or box, and 
is thus saved for the middlings and other pieces 
which are to be subsequently salted. 

Having rubbed, salted, and laid your hams away, 



156 CURING MEATS. 

proceed in the same mauner with the middlings, 
etc., till the whole is salted. Let your meat re- 
main thus for two weeks, when it must be all 
rubbed over again with additional salt, though this 
time but little more will be required. Let your 
meat remain two more weeks, and it is ready for 
smoking or drying. 

Lay your middlings down first, the second time 
of salting, with the hams uppermost. Before hang- 
ing your meat, sprinkle ground red pepper over it, 
and do not hang it hw^ particularly just over the 
smoke-hearth. Much good meat is ruined in this 
way after all your careful salting. 

To Cure Hams in Pickle. 

Seven pounds of coarse salt. 

Five pounds of brown sugar. 

Two ounces of pearlash or soda. 

Four gallons of water. 

Boil all together, and skim well, and when cold 
put in your hams. This quantity of pickle will 
cure one hundred pounds of hams. Eight weeks 
will perfect them, then hang them to smoke or dry. 

This is an excellent pickle for beef. Three 
weeks will corn it well. 

My favorite Mode of Curing Beef, Tongues, and Venison* 

Make a pickle strong ertough to bear up an egg 
(four gallons of water to the hundred weight), 
then in a bowl or pan mix eight spoonfuls of 
sugar, eight spoonfuls of saltpeter, eight spoonfuls 
of salt, and four of soda. Mix all these well 



CUHJA'G MEATS. 157 

together, wash all your pieces of beef clean from 
the blood, rub each piece well with the mixture^ 
and drop them into the pickle. If venison or 
tongues, treat them in the same way. Have a 
board fitting the inside of your pickle-tub, with a 
stone to suit; cover it up carefully. It will be 
ready in a week to use. 

Eight weeks are long enough to keep meat of 
any kind in pickle; indeed, it is injurious to keep 
it so longer. It should be hung up to dry or smoke 
for about a week, then put away in a safe place 
from the fly. 

To Smoke Meat* 

Make a bright fire in the smoke-hearth, and then 
smother it with a quantity of fine chips or tanner's 
bark, mixed with a handful of red pepper. If you 
find your chips inclined to blaze, put a slight 
covering of ashes over them. This will deaden 
the heat, without confining the smoke. Make 
such a fire as will be likely to continue burning 
for the whole day. Take care to make your smoke 
daily, and the bacon will be sufliciently cured in 
six weeks to pack away. 

Hams and shoulders are usually packed in bar- 
rels or boxes of leached ashes. The ashes should 
be thoroughly dried, or the fat of your hams may 
be partially converted into soap. Take care of 
this. 

If your smoke-house is a very dark one, and 
free from vermin, your hams may continue to hang 
all the year without packing; but a smoke should 
be made on damp days. Venison and mutton, 

U 



158 CURJiYG MEAIS. 

beef and beef-tongues, should be smoked in the 
same way; and sausages are much improved by 
smoking moderately. Too much makes them harsh, 
and strong in taste. 

To Dry Lard. 

Cut your fat into three-inch squares, and throw 
it into tubs of clean water ; shake it about to divest 
it of all the blood, and then pour oft' the water, and 
fill the tubs with a fresh supply; allow it to remain 
till morning, and then drain your fat, and put it 
into pots or boilers over a moderate tire. A fire 
made of chips or coal, on the hearth, a little in 
advance of the main kitchen fire, is best, as well as 
safest. If you hang your pots or boilers of fat over 
a blazing fire, it is apt to boil over, and may set 
your kitchen on fire, or it will most probably burn. 
Both these evils may be avoided by the first-men- 
tioned mode of procedure. Let your lard boil 
pretty briskly till the water is all dried out ; this 
will be known by its transparent appearance, for it 
will have a milky appearance until then. Now 
lessen your fire, and simmer the lard slowly, but 
steadily, stirring it all the while well from the 
bottom, or it is apt to burn. When your crack- 
lings have become shrunken and of a yellow-brown 
color, your lard is done. Let it cool, and strain it 
into jars or wooden tubs for the purpose. Some 
use tin. 

To Prepare Cases for Sausage* 

Take the small entrails of a hog, and after care- 
fully emptying and washing them in many waters, 



CURING MEATS, 159 

put them to soak in salt water for twenty-four 
hours. Then with the back of a knife-blade scrape 
them on a board on both sides, that is, outside and 
inside, being turned. It is very easy to turn them 
on a stick. Continue to scrape them till all the 
fleshy substance is gone, leaving only the thin, 
transparent skins. Then with a pair of bellows 
blow each one up. Those without holes put again 
into salt water. Let them remain till you are ready 
to use them. 

Those which have holes are generally put with 
the rest of the chitterlings and boiled, so that 
nothing is lost. 

On the inside of the leaf-fat (which is taken from 
over the tenderloin) is a broad sheet of skin, which, 
if carefully peeled oft*, will make a capital case for 
tom-thumbs, or large sausage. So also will the 
large intestine, if carefully cleaned as above di- 
rected. 

If you intend to smoke your sausage, thin muslin, 
dipped in lard, will answer for cases. When you 
use these, pour boiling water on them, and take the 
muslin ofil 

Sansages. 

• 

Chop your meat very fine, and to every seven 
pounds add one of leaf-fat, also chopped fine. 
Then season it with salt, sage, black and red pep- 
per, and, if you choose, savory, in the following 
proportions : 

Eight pounds of sausage-meat. 

Two and a quarter ounces of salt. 

Eight large spoonfuls of sifted sage; nine, if you 
like; one of savory. 



160 CURING MEATS, 

Three teaspoonfuls of black pepper, ground. 

Three teaspoonfuls of red pepper, ground. 

Mix all well in your sausage-meat, and pack 
it down hard in a stone jar; pour melted lard 
over the surface, and keep it well covered. Or, 
stuff your sausage in cases, link them in chains, 
and hang them to dry or smoke. (See Directions 
for Cases,) 

Your sausage-meat in jars must be made into 
small, round cakes, floured on both sides, and fried 
in their own grease. 

Your tom-thurabs should not be used till thor- 
oughly dried, and then boiled ; after which to be 
divested of their cases, and served either hot or 
cold. These should always be smoked. 

LiYer-pnddings. 

Boil the pigs' livers, and, while warm, crumble 
them up with your hands, then to every liver add 
two tablespoonfuls of melted lard, two tablespoon- 
fuls of Indian mush, one tablespoonful of salt, one 
of sage (pounded), and a teaspoonful of black and 
red pepper. Put them in large cases, as for tom- 
thumbs, and smoke them. Liver-puddings some- 
times turn sour, and therefore it will be well to 
add a little soda when you mix them. 

Brains. 

Wash them clear of the blood, then chop them 
up with eggs, pepper, and salt. Fry them in lard, 
stirring them frequently, as you would scrambled 
eggs. 



MEATS, 161 

Spare -ribs. 

Cut them up into convenient pieces, wash them 
clean, salt, pepper, and broil them till thoroughly 
done. Serve them hot. 

Back-bones. 

Cut them in small pieces, and boil them in 
water to cover them ; when done, stir in flour, salt, 
pepper, and sage. Allow them to stew till the 
gravy is of a proper consistency, and they are 
ready to serve. 

Calf's Feet. 

Have a pot of boiling water and weak lye, dip 
the hoofs in it for ten minutes, and with a sharp 
knife remove them from the feet; then lay the 
feet in clear cold water for twenty-four hours. 
When they are perfectly white and clean, boil 
them in a pot, full of water. When they are quite 
tender, the large bones having been loosened from 
the flesh, and easily removed, the feet are done; 
take them up, and put them away in cold salt and 
vinegar, with water. 

Calfs feet, floured, and fried brown, make a 
very nice dish for breakfast. 

A Calf's Heady 

Cleaned nicely, with the skin on, and boiled, may 
be fried in the same way. 

Calf's liiver for Breakfast* 

Lay the liver in cold water, with vinegar, for an 
hour ; then cut it in thin slices, salt, pepper, and 

14* 



162 MEATS, 

flour it, and then fry it in hot lard. Do not allow 
it to burn. Pour a little hot water in the frying- 
pan after you take out the liver, stirring it well, 
then add a little pounded mace, with salt and 
'pepper, and pour it over the liver in the dish. 

Head Cheese* 

Take four hogs' heads, wash and scrape them 
very nicely, and cut off the end of the snouts; 
scrape and clean the skins which have come off the 
fat of the backbones and chines, and take the feet 
also if you like. Put all these into a large pot of 
water, and boil them till so tender that the bones 
may be easily withdrawn from the meat. Chop 
the meat up, and season it with salt, pepper, and 
spices to your taste, — mace, cinnamon, and nut- 
meg are best. When all are well mixed, tie the 
meat up securely in a clean, strong cloth or towel, 
put it in a tray or tub, with a heavy weight on, so 
as to flatten your cheese. Let this remain till the 
following morning, when cut it in slices, as re- 
quired for the table. 

This is an excellent dish for luncheon. It is 
generally eaten with vinegar. 

Sweetbreads, Melts, and Tenderloins 

Are usually fried in hot lard for breakfast. 

Pig's Feet. 

Have ready a pot of boiling ashes and water, 
put your pig's feet in it for a few minutes, and 
take off" the hoofs with a sharp-pointed knife. As 
you do this, lay the feet in cold water, in which is 



MEATS, 163 

a little weak lye. Let the feet so remain, covered 
in water, till the following morning, when scrape 
them well and lay them in fresh water; repeat 
this every morning till the fourth or fifth, when 
the feet will be white and clean. Now boil them 
in water without salt till perfectly tender, and put 
them away in water, vinegar, and salt. 

Pig's feet are very nice taken out of this water 
each morning and fried brown for breakfast. Flour 
them before frying. 

Calf s feet are also very nice prepared in the 
same way. 

The liquor in which pig's or calf s feet are boiled, 
strained, divested of the lard, and purified, makes 
excellent jelly. (See Receipts in this book.) 

The grease from a set of calf s feet will make 
good oil for your kitchen lamp. If skimmed ofl:', 
and put in a jar with twice the quantity of weak 
lye for about two weeks, will become well-purified 
machine oil. 

Dried Beef. 

Take a leg of the finest beef you can get, split 
it in half, from the knuckle to the thigh-joint, that 
is, longitudinally ; wash it well, so that it is free from 
blood. Lay each piece in a large dish, then mix 
in a separate vessel two pounds of brown sugar, 
with two tablespoonfuls of saltpeter, and three of 
fine salt, with a little soda, say a piece as big as a 
pea ; mix all well together ; rub each piece of beef 
with this mixture, and put what remains of it on 
the surface of each piece. On the following morn- 
ing turn the beef over; do this every day, rubbing 



164 TOUR DINNER-TABLE, 

the beef. In about a week the whole of the juice 
which has been drained from the beef will be ab- 
sorbed into it again, and when this is the case hang 
your beef to dry or smoke. When 8uflS.ciently dry, 
wrap in paper, and put away in a cool, dry place. 
In summer this beef is excellent 



TOUE DHWEE-TABLE. 

Take care that your table is bright and clean, 
then cover it with a pure, glossy, linen-damask 
cloth. Place your casters in the center, unless you 
prefer to rear a pyramid of flowers in their place ; 
in this case let the casters remain on the side- 
board or side-table, and instruct your waiter to 
hand it to any one wishing it. Lay the plates, etc., 
according to the number of persons to dine, always 
with one extra, for an accidental guest. 

Lay your knives and forks together, at the right 
side of your plates, with glasses for water and wine, 
if you use both, and a spoon for soup. Turn your 
plate upside down, with a clean, folded napkin on 
it, and, if you choose, with a slice of bread beneath. 
Uever thrust your napkin into your tumbler or 
goblet, it is very unrefined, — this is a custom origi- 
nating with waiters in hotels, who wished to make 
a show. Take care your casters are brilliantly 
clean, and well filled with choice condiments. 

I have always found it most convenient to lay 
the dinner-table early, that is, as soon as the din- 



COURSES, 165 

ing-roora is put in order after breakfast, placing 
the entire equipage on which is intended, corre- 
sponding to the number of dishes proposed. This 
will enable your servant to know exactly where 
you wish each article placed. 

When dinner is ready to be served, let all the 
dishes be taken from the table, carried into the 
kitchen, and placed in the same order on a clean 
table, and when having received their appointed 
contents returned to the dining-room. You will 
see the great advantage of this arrangement, especi- 
ally when you have company to dinner; for, as you 
must be in your drawing-room at the time, there 
might be some serious mistake in the placing of 
the dishes, which it would be too late to remedy 
when you are called in, — that is, when your entire 
dinner is placed on the table at once ; or, in case 
of a succession of courses, you would not think it 
proper to be giving directions before your guests. 
In winter, always take care your plates are in the 
plate-warmer till you sit down to dinner. 

Courses. 

First course — soup. 

Second course — fish. 

Third course — meats. 

Fourth course — salads. 

Plates, knives, forks, and spoons to be removed 
each time, and replaced with clean ones, except 
spoons, which will not be needed. 

Then comes the dessert; after which introduce 
finger-bowls half full of pure water, with napkins. 



166 



DINNER'TABLB. 



Dinner-table. 



« q' I V 



@ 



© 



•® 



^0(p0-& 




1. Ham. 


10. 


Yegetables. 


2. Boiled mutton. 


11. 


Flowers. 


8. Turkey and fowls. 


12. 


(( 


4. Oysters, scolloped. 


18. 


Pickles. 


6. Potted partridges. 


14. 


(( 


6. Macaroni. 


16. 


Spoons and oellan. 


7. Vegetables. 


16. 


(( 11 


8. " 


17. 


tt it 


9. « 


18. 


a a 



ARRANGEMENT OF YOUR DESSERT, 167 

The. dishes selected for this table are merely in- 
tended to represent a suitable style of arrange- 
ment, as also a handsome one, without any inten- 
tion of insisting on always having them appear 
in their present position on the table, or on any 
necessity of always having them for a dinner com- 
pany. The mistress of a house must use her taste, 
judgment, or fancy in the selection of her dishes, 
always remembering that " variety is the spice of 
life." In truth, as a dinner-party is equally as 
conducive to rational as physical enjoyment, it is 
well to give your table as attractive and agreeable 
an appearance as possible, ornamenting even with 
efforts of genius. Pyramids of fruits and flowers, 
or vases of choice exotics, at intervals, enliven a 
dinner-table vastly, put the guests in a genial 
humor, and open their hearts to the impulses of 
kind, generous, and benevolent feelings toward 
their companions as well as all mankind. 

Arrangement of yoar Dessert. 

If you have a suite of apartments admitting of 
it, set your dessert- table in another communicating 
with your dining-room. As soon as dinner is over, 
let the guests rise and be conducted into the des- 
sert-room. It will afford an agreeable change, and 
relieve you of removal of dinner-dishes, brushing 
off or removing cloths, etc. 

If this arrangement cannot be made when the 
dessert is over, remove the cloth, and take a glass 
of wine with the guests, or a cup of coffee, and re- 
tire with your lady guests to the withdrawing-room. 



168 



DESSERT FOR CHRISTMAS DINNER. 



Dessert for Christmas Dinner. 




1. Plum-pudding. 

2. Large iced-cake. 
8. Eve's delight. 

4. Gharlotte-russe. 

5. Lemon-pudding. 



12. French candies. 

13. " " 

14. Nuts. 

16. Baisins, etc. 
16. Flowers. 



(( 



6. Orange or cocoanut-pudding. 17. " 

7. Jelly in glass dish. 18. Jellies. 

8. " " 

9. Sponge-cake, iced. 

10. Pyramid of macaroons. 

11. Pyramid of fruits and 

flowers. 



19. 

20. Blanc-mange. 

21. " 

22. Bemove No. 1, place ice- 
cream. 



SOUFS. 169 

Beef Soup No. 1. 

Take a shank of beef, crack the bone in sev- 
eral places, wash it clean, and put it in a pot, 
with half a cup of rice ; fill your pot with cold 
water, cover it, and set it over a brisk fire. As 
soon as it begins to simmer, draw it somewhat off 
the fire, where it will only continue to simmer. 
Skim it well, and put in your vegetables: Lima 
beans, green corn, a little chopped turnip, cab- 
bage, and small, young potatoes. Keep your soup 
boiling slowly for seven hours, when the meat 
will be partially dissolved, and a thick mucilage or 
broth formed. When the last hour has arrived, 
add tomatoes, a bunch of marjoram, savory, or 
thyme, or, if you choose, a small sprig of each. 
Then add your okras, already boiled to a muci- 
lage in a porcelain stewpan. Let it boil up once 
more, and serve immediately. Add salt and red 
pepper before serving. 

Remember to stir your soup frequently well 
from the bottom during the whole process of boil- 
ing. If the vegetables are suffered to adhere to 
the bottom of the pot, they are apt to burn, and 
thus you have bad all your labor for naught — ^your 
soup is ruined. 

Skim oft' the fat before sending the soup to 
table. Soup that is boiled properly has imbibed 
all the substance of the meat, and if any bits of 
meat remain undissolved, they should be removed 
before serving. 

15 



170 SOUFS. 

Beef Soup No. 2. 

This soup is made as No. 1, though of bits of 
meat other than the shank. It will not be quite 
as rich or gelatinous, but very good, if taken pains 
with. 

In winter, when fresh vegetables cannot be ob- 
tained, those which have been dried will answer 
as well, though it is necessary to introduce them at 
the first, when the water is cold, as otherwise they 
are not apt to dissolve perfectly. Chopped celery, 
or even the seed, will improve your soup very 
much. 

Bean Soup. 

Put your beans on early, with a few slices of 
ham and beef. Boll them till entirely dissolved, 
then strain them through a colander; return the 
soup to the pot, with a little chopped onion, 
celery, and a bunch of herbs, with salt and pepper 
to your taste. 

Let your soup boil for a short time slowly, strain 
it again, and serve it in a tureen. If too thick, add 
a little hot water before the last boiling. 

Tnrtle Soup. 

Kill your turtle at night, and hang it up to bleed 
by the hind fins. In the morning separate the 
upper and under shell carefully. Do not break the 
gall-bag, or it will be ruined. Now take out all 
the flesh, fins, and eggs, and lay them in clean 
water. Some persons save the liver also. 

Take off all the black skin from the fins, put 
your turtle in a pot of water, let it boil till tender, 



SOUFS. 171 

skim it well, then add a few slices of ham, a 
large lump of fresh butter, rubbed in flour, with 
onion, chopped celery, marjoram, thyme, savory, 
cloves, allspice, and nutmeg. Boil a handful of 
chopped Irish potatoes, with half a teacupful of 
rice, iu a small stewpan, till dissolved, and add 
them to the soup with a pint of Madeira wine. Let 
it boil up, and pour your soup into the tureen. 

To Clean a Calf's Head. 

Scald it in weak lye, scrape off the hair, and, 
after washing it thoroughly, soak it overnight in 
clean, cold water. 

CalPs Head Soap. 

This soup is called mock-turtle, because of its so 
nearly resembling that preparation in taste. It is 
made precisely in the same manner. 

Turtle soup and calPs head soup are both eaten 
with force-meat balls. 

Force-meat Balls. 

Chop up fine, as for sausage-meat, veal or tender 
beef, with sweet herbs, salt, pepper, and bread- 
crumbs moistened with eggs. When your force- 
meat is well mixed, make of it little balls with the 
hands, flour them, and fry them brown, then drop 
them in the soup after it is placed in the tureen. 

Okra Soup. 

This soup is made in the same way as beef soup 
No. 1, and when the vegetables are boiled to a 
mash, they are taken out with a perforated skim- 



172 SOUPS. 

mer, and half a gallon of okras, cut up, is added 
to the soup. Let it boil till very thick, and pour 
it into the tureen. 

Chicken Sonp* 

Clean and draw your chicken, wash it in several 
waters, then put it in a pot, with a large spoonful 
of rice ; cover it, and let it boil ; skim it carefully. 
When done, add a teacupful of new milk, a sprig 
of thyme, with a little pepper (either red or black, 
as you like) and salt. 

Green Pea Sonp*. 

Boil a quart of shelled green peas in two quarts 
of water till soft, then take them out of the water 
and mash them with a wooden spoon ; return them 
to their liquor, with a few slices of cold ham, a few 
slices of cold beef, pepper, salt, parsley, marjoram, 
and thyme. Boil it up briskly, and serve it very 
hot. This is a dainty soup. 

Oyster Soap. 

Take two quarts of the finest oysters you can get, 
take them carefully out of their liquor, and divest 
them of any bits of shell that may adhere to them, 
strain the liquor, and use il or not, as you like, for 
the soup. Now put a quart of sweet milk into a 
clean saucepan, with a few grains of allspice and a 
few bits of mace. Let it come to a boil, then stir 
in gradually a quarter of a pound of butter, previ- 
ously rubbed with a spoonful of flour, and mixed 
with a few spoonfuls of the boiling milk. Put in 
your oysters, and let them simmer till plump; 



FISH. 173 

then take them out, put them in the tureen, and 
when the milk has boiled up again, pour it over the 
oysters in the tureen, and serve hot. Toast some 
thin slices of bread, cut them in inch squares, and 
throw them on the soup. A cup of sweet cream 
improves oyster soup very much. 

If you have not the milk, cream, or butter, season 
your oysters with slices of boiled ham, and thicken 
it slightly and smoothly with wheat flour; add a 
little onion, parsley, or spice. 

Clam Sonp 

Is made as oyster soup, except that the clams must 
be chopped up very fine and boiled till tender, be- 
fore the seasoning is put in. A little chopped 
celery and onion will improve this soup very much. 

Fish. 

If a fish is fresh and good, the eyes will appear 
prominent and bright, the gills of a bright red, the 
body firm, and the bones elastic. If blue at the 
gills, the eyes dull, and the flesh flabby, do not 
buy the fish. 

To clean fish of all kinds, the scales should be 
carefully removed, every one, the fish should be 
opened, and every particle of the entrails taken out. 
The blood should be all scraped and washed out. 
Great care should be taken that the gall is not 
broken. The fish should be well and carefully 
washed before being seasoned for cooking. 

A large fish, intended for baking or boiling, 
should be opened for drawing in front, just 

15* 



174 FISIL 

over the entrails; but if intended for broiling or 
frying, they are usually opened down the back, 
and laid flat, when the entrails can be removed 
without diflSculty. Open your large fish, intendetl 
for boiling or baking, as little as possible ; cut it 
from the gills downward about two inches, insert 
the finger, and draw the entrails up. 

After cleaning and washing out well, cutting 
ofl:' the vent and gills, stuff;' with bread, butter, 
pepper, salt, and onion, as you like. 

Pan fish, such as perch, robins, etc., must be 
opened from the gills to the vent, which latter cut 
offl They may be scored on both sides, at regular 
distances of an inch or an inch and a half, then 
peppered, salted, and fried. 

Fish in summer are never good on the second 
day, unless kept in ice ; in winter it does not 
matter so much ; but care should be taken to cook 
them as soon as possible, unless they are well 
saltedy as fish is never good stale. 

To Boil Fish. 

Put them in boiling water (with a little salt) 
inclosed in a bag or towel, well secured. A towel 
is best, because you can unroll it over the dish with 
less danger of breaking the fish. Weigh your fish, 
and allow a quarter of an hour to each pound. If 
the water boils steadily on to the last, it will be well 
done. If you have any suspicions that it is not 
done, run a needle into the thick part to the bone 
in the back, move the point about, and be sure the 
flesh 13 loosened from the bone, otherwise return it 



FISH, 175 

to the boiler for a little while longer. Egg sauce 
is usually an accompaniment for boiled fish. 

All small fish are best fried, such as perch, 
robins, spotted-fish, etc. Mackerel, mullets, and 
flounders, when fresh, are excellent fried crisply, 
and eaten with butter and tomato or mushroom 
sauce. When salted, they are best broiled and 
buttered. 

To Stew Eels. 

Get them very fresh, skin them, and, having 
washed them well, stew them in pure water till 
tender; then rub a spoonful of butter, with the 
same quantity of flour ; stir this in with the water 
and fish, then add a sliced onion, a sprig of marjo- 
ram and thyme, with salt and red pepper. Let the 
whole stew till well done. 

To Prepare Shad for Broilng. 

Scale your shad perfectly, clean it nicely, then 
split it down the back, and lay it flat on your 
board or tray ; now remove the entrails perfectly, 
taking care not to break the gall. Wash out all 
the blood, and lay your shad in clean water till 
you are ready to place it over the fire. 

To Prepare a Shad for Breakfast. 

First, with a sharp knife, remove all the bones 
from your shad, sprinkle it with salt and a little 
Cayenne pepper, after which dredge on a thin coat 
of flour. Have ready a greased tin sheet (not a pan), 
lay on it your shad, and put it in your stove or 
oven ; let it brown slowly, and when done slip it 



176 ^^^B- 

carefully off the tin sheet to a hot dish. Butter it 
well, and serve it immediately. 

To Broil a Fresh Shad. 

Grease your gridiron, put your shad on it, over 
bright coals for five minutes, just to give it the 
taste of the fire, then transfer it to a tin sheet, and 
having dredged on flour, pour on a large spoonful 
of melted butter, and bake. 

Conrt Bonillon. 

This dish may be made of either rockfish or 
sheepshead. For one fish, sliced, weighing about 
six or seven pounds, take 

Three spoonfuls of butter. 

Four spoonfuls of flour (brown the flour). 

One pint of chopped onions. 

One quart of chopped tomatoes. 

One quart of water. 

One pint of claret wine. 

Two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley. 

One tablespoonful of chopped thyme. 

One teaspoonful of pounded cloves. 

One teaspoonful of allspice. 

Fry the onions in the butter, then add the 
browned flour, then the tomatoes, water, wine, 
spices, and herbs. Let the whole come to a boil, 
add the sliced fish, and let it simmer forty minutes, 
then add pepper and salt. 



FISH, 177 

To Fry Fish. 

If a large fish, cutit into four- or five-inch squares, 
pepper, salt, and flour it, then fry it in boiling lard. 
Your fish should swim in lard, or it will be scorched 
at the under side, and this will spoil its fine ap- 
pearance. Serve it hot, with melted butter in a 
boat. 

To Pickle Fish. 

Rock, salmon, or sheepshead will be very nice 
pickled thus: Cut your fish in six- or eight-inch 
pieces, boil these till thoroughly done, that is, till 
easily parted from the bone, and bloodless; then 
take them out carefully, lay them in a stone jar, 
with alternate layers of spice, pepper, salt, and 
sliced onion; cover them with vinegar and a little 
water, say a pint to two quarts of vinegar. Cover 
the jar, and set it in a cool place. 

Pickled fish is excellent for breakfast, tea, or 
Bupper. Do not keep it long. 

To Broil Fish. 

Fresh fish should remain on the gridiron barely 
long enough to acquire the taste belonging to 
broiled fish, then it should be transferred to a tin 
sheet, and set in an oven to brown slightly. When 
done, butter, and serve hot. . 

To Prepare Salt Herrings for Breakfast* 

Either broil or fry them. Soak and wash them 
overnight, and in the morning, early, hang them 
up to dry. Sift flour or meal over them, and fry 



178 FISH. 

them a light brown, or broil them on a gridiron 
over dull coals. If the coals are bright, your her- 
rings will burn and blister before being done 
within. 

To Fry Perch or Robins. 

Clean, scale, and draw your perch neatly, wash 
them thoroughly from the blood, take out the gills, 
and trim the tails and fins; salt and flour them, 
then fry them in boiling lard a handsome brown. 
Some cooks score them on both sides before flour- 
ing them. Serve them very hot, with drawn but- 
ter or boiled egg sauce. 

To Roast a Shad on a Board. 

Take a fat, fresh shad, clean it neatly, lay it open 
on the back, as for broiling, salt and pepper it, 
then nail it to an oaken board or barrel top, first 
heating the board thoroughly. Set the board up 
on its side before the fire, turn it frequently, first 
one side up, then the other, to preserve the juice. 
Flour and butter it while roasting, and, when done, 
lay the board with the fish on a dish, and send it to 
the table hot, with drawn butter and chopped eggs. 

To Broil or Bake a Salt Shad or Mackerel. 

Take it from the pickle overnight, lay it in 
water to soak till morning, when quite early wash 
it, scrape it, and lay it in fresh, cold water for a 
short time, then wipe it dry, and hang it up till all 
your breakfast is ready for the fire, then lay it on the 
gridiron over the fire, as directed for fresh shad, or 
on a tin sheet to be baked. Serve it hot. 



Fisn, 179 

To Bake Fish. 

Having cleaned and washed your fish, salt it a 
little, and stuft* it with slices of buttered bread 
sprinkled with red pepper, and chopped onion or 
garlic; cover it with bread-crumbs or pounded 
cracker, after having brushed it over with yelk 
of egg. Put it in a pan or Dutch oven, with some 
water in the bottom, to prevent the fish from be- 
coming dry. Baste it frequently with butter. When 
it is of a handsome brown color on the upper side, 
take oflp the lid of the oven, that the water may 
evaporate ; let your fish remain in the butter to 
brown on the under side, and serve it hot, with 
gravy made of the butter in the oven, with a little 
browned flour and water, pepper, salt, and onion. 

To Stew Fish. 

Cut your fish into pieces, four or five inches square, 
put it in a stewpan with water; let it boil gently, 
then rub a lump of fresh butter, with half its 
quantity of flour, moisten it with a little of the 
boiling water, and mix it gradually and smoothly 
with the water around the fish; then season your 
stew with salt, pepper, onion, or parsley. Add a 
cup of rich, sweet milk or cream when your fish is 
done, and serve hot. 

Chowder. . 

Slice your fish in pieces about six inches long; 
add slices of fat pork, salt, pepper, onions, and 
pounded crackers, with a cup of milk, then a little 



180 PiSi^' 

flour rolled in butter, with parsley, and a glass of 
wine. Simmer this gently for an hour in a closely 
covered Dutch oven, and serve it hot. 

Fish of any kind stewed in this way, with the 
addition of mushrooms and spices, makes a very 
excellent and handsome dish for company. 

Codfish. 

Boil it tender, prick it from the bones, and mix 
it with equal quantity of mashed Irish potatoes, a 
spoonful of^ butter, onion, salt, pepper, parsley, a 
glass of white wine. Bake it in a baking-dish, 
with nice, rich paste, above and below, or make it 
into balls a little flattened, and fry them in lard. 

sturgeon. 

Parboil your sturgeon, cut it in slices, and stew 
it with butter, pepper, salt, onion, and parsley, or 
stuft' it, season it, and bake it as veal. 

Salmon, 

When in season, should be of a pinkish gray, and 
when cooked almost rose colored. The small- 
headed salmon is the best. Salmon is best boiled 
in thick slices; when done, dress them with melted 
butter and sprigs of parsley. 

To Bake Sturgeon. 

Take out the bones and stuff the vacancies with 
bread, butter, onion, thyme, and marjoram. Place 
bits of butter on it in a baking-dish, dredge on 
flour, and having poured a few spoonfuls of boil- 



OYSTERS, CLAMS, ETC. 181 

ing water on it from the teakettle, bake it as you 
would veal. 

Or cut it in pieces, and stew it in water sufficient 
to cover it, with butter rubbed in flour, onion, pep- 
per, salt, and thyme or marjoram. 

Crabs and Lobsters 

Are best simply boiled, and the meat cut up, and 
dressed with salad dressing. (See receipts in this 
book.) 

Oysters. 

Do not buy oysters in the shell, unless they will 
close firmly and quickly on the knife-blade when 
inserted into their mouths. If the oysters yield 
at once to the knife, or the mouths are open, you 
may be sure they are dead. Do not buy them, — 
they are worthless, unwholesome. 

Do not buy opened oysters if they are of a 
creamy-white color, and begin to acquire a tainted 
odor. They are spoiled or spoiling. 

Good oysters have a transparent appearance, 
even when very fat, and of a whitish color, whereas 
the spoiled ones are of a thick, dead white, and 
somewhat like a plumped oyster, unless they are 
very poor. 

Fried Oysters. 

Take your oysters one by one out of their liquor, 
laying them on a clean towel to drain, then shred 
up bread-crumbs, or have ready pounded crackers, 
into which beat up several eggs, whites and yelks 
together, with a little salt and pepper. Have ready 
a frying-pan with boiling lard, take up one oyster 

16 



182 OYSTERS, CLAMS, ETC. 

at a time, with a fork or spoon, lay it first on one 
side and then on the other in the egg and bread- 
crumbs or cracker, after which drop it in the hot 
lard. Drop in as many as your pan will conven- 
iently hold without one oyster touching another. 
Fry them a light brown. 

Another way. — Drain your oysters as above, sift 
Indian meal over them, and fry them brown. 

Another. — Fry them in a common batter, of milk, 
eggs, and flour, as above. 

stewed Clams. 

Prepare them as you would oysters, except that 
they should be cut up, and allowed more time to 
stew. 

Clam Fritters. 

Chop your clams fine, and pour them in a batter 
of eggs, milk, and flour, with a little pepper and 
salt : drop them from a spoon in boiling lard. 

To Stew Oysters. 

Take them out of their liquor, put them in a 
stewpan, with new milk suflicient to cover them, 
add butter, pepper, and salt to your taste ; simmer 
them till plump, and serve them immediately. 
Oysters are often spoiled by too much cooking. It 
renders them tough and tasteless. 

Another way. — Take them from their liquor till it 
is strained, to divest it of bits of shell or other ob- 
jectionable things, then return them, and stew 
them in their own liquor; simmer till plump, with 
butter, pepper, salt, a cup of cream, and a few 
pieces of whole mace. 



OYSTUBS, CLAMS, ETC. 183 

Some persons rub a little flour into the butter 
before adding it to the oysters; but in this case it 
is best to remove the oysters till the liquor and 
flour are well amalgamated, and thoroughly done. 

Scolloped Oysters. 

Cover the bottom of a baking-dish with bread- 
crumbs, mixed with butter, pepper, and salt ; add 
a layer of oysters, then another covering of bread- 
crumbs and butter, sprinkled with salt and pep- 
per, then oysters again and bread-crumbs, till 
the pan is full. Let the last layer be of bread- 
crumbs, butter, etc. Bake brown, and send them 
to table hot. 

Scolloped oysters are sometimes baked in scollop- 
shells, prepared as above, and thus has the name 
been obtained for this mode of dressing oysters. 
They may be prepared in little patty-pans. 

Oyster Pie. 

Cover a baking-dish with puft' paste, fill it with 
oysters, butter, pepper, and salt ; the butter rubbed 
up with a spoonful of flour. Cover the dish with 
puff paste, and bake of a light brown. You may 
ornament the top crust with paste leaves. 

Pickled Oysters. 

Pick your oysters, strain their liquor, then boil 
the liquor with a little salt, a pod of red pepper, 
and a little mace. While boiling, put in the 
oysters, let them boil till plump, then take them 
out, put them in your jar; throw in the liquor a 



184 OYSTERS, CLAMS, ETC. 

pint of good vinegar to two quarts of oysters, let 
the vinegar and liquor boil up, and pour it on the 
oysters. They are now done. Do not use them 
till they are cold. 

If you wish to keep the oysters for some time, 
boil them rather more, make them quite salt, and 
cork them, then put them in a cool place or in ice. 

• 

Broiled Oysters. 

Drain the liquor from them, and lay them on 
oyster-irons over bright coals. Butter them, and 
send them to table hot. 

Oyster Fritters. 

Take your oysters out of their liquor, and chop 
them a little. Have ready a batter of eggs, milk, 
and flour, add to this a little of the oyster liquor, 
strained ; let your lard boil, and put your fritters 
in, one spoonful at a time. Fry them a yellow 
brown. Very little salt is necessary, if any. 

To Roast Oysters. 

Have a bright wood fire, wash your oysters clean, 
and lay them on the tire ; as soon as their mouths 
open, turn them. Allow them to remain till the 
shells are dry on both sides, and they are done. 
Open them near the fire, over a heated deep dish, 
and serve with butter, pepper, and salt. 

Roasted Clams. 

Clams are roasted in the same manner as oys- 
ters, and served in like manner. Indeed, clams are 



OYSTERS, CLAMS, ETC, 185 

roasted, stewed, fried, and broiled m the same 
manner as oysters, except that they should be 
chopped up very fine, if stewed or fried in batter. 

Shrimps. 

Pick and boil your shrimps, then cover the bot- 
tom of a baking-dish with pounded cracker and 
butter ; add a layer of shrimps and another of but- 
ter and crackers till the dish is full, the crackers 
forming the last layer. Then pour over the whole 
a cup of sweet cream, with a little salt, pepper, and 
mace. 

Terrapins. 

Cut open your terrapins, and having extracted 
the eggs, feet, and legs, wash them in pure water, 
and stew them till tender, then stir in butter and 
flour rubbed together; mace, onion, salt, and pepper 
to your taste, with a cup of wine. 



16* 



186 ROASTING. 



BOASTiira. 

There is no such thing as roasting without ex- 
posure to actual fire. There can be no inter- 
mediate agent. If one is used, then the article 
intended to be roasted is baked, boiled, fried, or 
stewed. That noble old dish, "roast beef," is 
poorly represented by baked beef, that is, beef done 
in an oven or stove. 

I remember, in my young days, seeing a piece 
of beef or a turkey hung up by a string before the 
fire, with a dripping-pan beneath it to catch its 
juices as they fell. The cook or her assistant fre- 
quently turned the string to keep her meat or 
turkey revolving slowly before the fire, while with 
a basting-mop, moistened with butter or lard and 
flour, she rubbed it as it turned. When done, it 
was usually a beautiful and delicious dish, vastly 
superior to your baked meats of this age of im- 
provements. 

Again, I have seen roasting done to the same 
perfection by means of a roasting-jack or spit and 
crank, so constructed of iron as to turn the meat 
horizontally before the fire instead of vertically. 
This also was more convenient than the first-men- 
tioned mode. 

Next came a still greater improvement, the tin- 
kitchen. It roasted equally well, while to the 
housekeeper or cook it was a great convenience. 



1 



ROASTING. 187 

But this did not satisfy the spirit of expediency, 
and again the inventive genius of man went to 
work, and the cooking-stove came into existence. 
Being decidedly more economical in fuel, labor, 
and time, it has superseded all other modes of 
cooking, to a vast extent, in this rapidly advancing 
age. 

It is seldom a really roasted joint of meat or fowl 
of any kind is to be found at the present day. 
But I do assure my reader, who is only acquainted 
with baked beef or baked fowl, there is a great en- 
joyment in store should she or he determine for 
once to break through this modern idea, and go 
back to primitive roasting. The difference is 
astonishing, and well worth the experiment. 

Venison, mutton, veal, lamb, and pork should be 
dressed by the same rules. 

The same rules by which a joint of meat is 
roasted will apply to poultry of every kind, and 
therefore I shall only give general directions for 
this application of heat. Of course the preparatory 
directions must be different, such as cleaning, truss- 
ing, stuffing, etc. 

When you are about to roast a joint of meat, 
first wash it clean, then having prepared a bright, 
glowing fire, spit your joint, and after slightly 
salting it, and dredging an even thin coat of flour 
all over it, place it in your tin-kitchen at a distance 
of two feet from the fire. Throw a little water 
into your dripping-pan to prevent the juices from 
burning as they fall from the meat. From time to 
time baste your meat with a basting-mop, and lard 



188 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

or butter. Gradually move your meat, inch by 
inch, nearer to the fire, and, as it begins to brown, 
dredge on more flour; let it brown, and rub it 
when brown with the basting-mop, then with a 
spoon sprinkle it with water from the dripping- 
pan; as this returns to the dripping-pan, it takes 
down with it the browned flour, which is suflBcient 
to color the gravy. 

Let your meat become of a bright yellow-brown 
color; then, on pricking it with a fork, if no red 
juice follows, the meat is done. If it is preferred 
rare, remove it from the fire sooner. 

Roast Beef of Old England. 

When King James I. ascended the English 
throne it is probable he had never, in all his royal 
Scottish lifetime partaken of this noble dish, for 
such was his delight, on taking the first morsel 
into his mouth, that he instantly drew out his 
sword and bestowed the honor of knighthood on 
the object of his admiration, — a loin of beef. 
Thenceforth it was " Sir Loin" on the royal board, 
and has ever since retained that name or title. 

To Roast a Sirloin of Beef. 

Cooks usually allow a quarter of an hour to a 
pound in roasting or baking; but as a sirloin is 
much thiner than it is broad and long, a less time 
will be required to cook it. 

If your beef does not weigh more than ten 
pounds, an hour and a half will sufllce ; if twelve 
or fifteen, two hours and a half will do. 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. . 189 

First, wash your meat carefully, rub it with a 
httle salt, dredge on a thin coat of flour, and having 
spitted it lengthwise, place it before the fire at a 
distance of two feet. Have your fire briskly and 
clearly burning. Put a cup of water in your drip- 
ping-pan to prevent the burning of the juices 
which will drop from your meat. It will become 
warm through, but will cook slowly. Turn it fre- 
quently. When it begins to fry and drop its juice 
freely, turn it around more rapidly. When it has 
been doing three-quarters of an hour, move it a few 
inches nearer to the fire. Baste it frequently with 
butter or lard, or, if very fat, with the dripping 
from the pan. After basting, dredge on more 
flour till it is brown; baste again, and continue 
this throughout the process. Prick your meat now 
with a fork, and if no bloody juice follows, it is 
done; then draw it nearer to the fire for the last 
half hour. Baste it often, to prevent burning. 
When it is covered with a rich, brown crust, take 
it from the spit, but keep it near the fire, covered^ 
till your dinner is dished. Now pour your drip- 
ings into a saucepan, skim oflP most of the fat, and 
let it boil to a proper consistency. Serve in a 
gravy-boat, and not with the roast in the dish. 

To Bake a Sirloin of Beef. 

This is a very nice and difficult process, seeing 
this dish is intended to represent genuine roast 
beef in both appearance and quality. 

Be very particular to follow all the directions for 
roast beef as closely as possible, considering there 



190 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

is to be no roasting about it. Take care it is not 
suffered to burn, or become dry and hard ; that it 
is basted well and frequently; that it is of a hand- 
some brown all over. Be sure and have no bits of un- 
colored flour about it, and that it is thoroughly done. 
As the dish is intended for dinner, it must be 
presumed that there is a substantial and active fire 
in your stove. Your fire cannot be graduated to 
suit one article more than another. This can only 
be done by placing some things nearer and some 
at a greater distance from the fire-chamber, or by 
opening a door. This latter must be done in the 
case of baking meats, indeed, any other article. 
Place your sirloin in a dripping-pan with water, 
dredge on flour, and draw your beef to the farthest 
side of the stove from the fire. Do this, if your 
sirloin is a large one, about two hours and a half 
before it is intended to be served. If a medium 
size one, two hours will do. Leave the stove door 
open 'partially till your water is hot, as well as your 
beef. Baste frequently with a larded mop and with 
flour. When on pricking your beef with a fork, 
no bloody juice follows, you may conclude your 
baked meat is nearly done; now, after basting 
well, close your door, and allow it to become of a 
yellow-brown color. When this is the case, take 
out your beef, place it near the stove to keep warm, 
and boil down your gravy to a proper consistency. 
Send your sirloin to the table in a heated dish, and 
the gravy in a gravy-boat. No seasoning is neces- 
sary but a little salt. Mustard and horseradish are 
agreeable condiments. 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 191 

Some persons like their beef only partially done, 
80 that when cut the juice will retain a red color. 
If this is desired, an hour is sufficient for a sirloin 
of a moderate size. 

Beefsteak* 

Beefsteaks should be taken from the tender- 
loin; but if this cannot be done, then from the 
tongue side of the joint which bounds the larger 
round. If this cannot be procured, then take your 
steak from the round itself, nearest the hip-joint. 
These steaks will require to be beaten with a meat- 
mallet, taking care not to make them ragged by 
too much beating. 

Now wash your steaks well in pure water, grease 
your gridiron with sweet lard, and put it over a 
bright, glowing bed of lively coals. 

Sprinkle your steaks on both sides with sifted 
flour, and lay them on the gridiron. Cover them 
with a tin or sheet-iron pan, about the size of your 
gridiron. This will prevent their drying too 
rapidly. 

When brown on one side, turn the other, and 
as soon as that is brown remove your steaks 
from the gridiron to the pan which covers them ; 
set it on the gridiron, add a good piece of sweet 
butter, and pour in from your teakettle a few 
spoonfuls of boiling water, cover with another 
pan, and let your steaks so remain till your dinner 
is dished, after which serve them in a hot dish, 
with cover. 

No salt will be needed in the cooking, it only 
Qiakes the steak hard; add this and other usual 



192 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

coudiments after you are helped to the steak. 
Your plates should be hot to eat beefsteak iu per- 
fection. 

If bits of your steak remain after dinner, add 
them to j'our soup-pot on the following day. They 
impart a pleasant tone to soup, if not scorched in 
broiling. 

Beef Alamode* 

Take a Dutch oven that has been carefully 
cleaned, and put it over a few lively coals. Drop 
into it a spoonful of good lard; as soon as it is 
melted, dredge in sufficient flour to cover the bot- 
tom of the oven. Leave it to brown. When every 
appearance of whiteness has disappeared from the 
flour, draw the coals out, for fear of burning, till 
your round is ready. 

Wash a fine round of beef, then lay it on a 
board, and with a sharp knife gash it vertically 
all over, taking care to move the point of the knife 
so as to make the incisions larger within the meat 
than at the surface, so as to contain the stuffing the 
better. Then prepare your stuffing: 

One onion, chopped. 

One handful of fat pork or bacon, chopped fine. 

One tablespoonful of sugar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half teaspoonful of red pepper. 

Spoonful of powdered savory, thyme, and celery 
seed. 

One spoonful of spices, mixed. 

Mix all well together, and fill up the gashes in 
the round. 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC, 193 

Sift flour over the meat, and now place it in the 
oven, and replace the coals. Pour boiling water 
into the oven, around the meat, till it approaches 
the upper surface, but do not let it overflow the 
meat. Heat the cover of the oven, put a few em- 
bers on it, and let the beef stew for seven hours. 
Keep a kettle of boiling water near, and fill up, 
from time to time, as the gravy diminishes. Do 
not suffer it to become dry, as alamode beef is a 
rich stew^ not a baked meat. If sufltered to become 
dry, it will be hard. 

When you open your oven to fill up with water, 
throw some of the gravy over the meat, and rub 
the flour about that it may not form a crust. 
Loosen the round from the bottom occasionally. 

Just before you remove the round from the 
oven, pour over it a good glass of port wine, let it 
remain covered for a few moments, and then serve. 
Put your gravy in a gravy-boat. If your gravy is 
not quite of the consistency of cream, let it boil a 
few minutes more ; if too thick, add boiling water. 

This is a very handsome dish for a cold supper, 
and what is left of it after supper will make, with 
some of the gravy, a fine hash for breakfast. 

Alamode beef, cold, and cut up fine, makes a 
delicious salad, prepared in the same way as 
chicken, salad, that is, provided it is prepared in 
a proper manner, when it will be as tender as 
chicken ;' but if suffered to become hard in stewing^ 
it will not answer for a salad. 

17 



194 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

Hash Alamode. 

Slices of alamode beef stewed with some of the 
gravy, with the addition of a glass of wine, and a 
lump of butter. Serve in a hot, covered dish. 

Calf's Head Fried. 

Boil a calf's head, after well cleaning, as directed 
before. When done, and quite tender, cut it iu 
pieces, cover each piece with egg, and bread-crumbs 
or pounded cracker, seasoned with salt and pepper, 
as directed for oyster fritters, and fry them till of a 
light brown. This a very nice dish. 

Boned Beef Roll. 

With a sharp knife take the ribs out of a piece 
of fat beef, then stuff the cavities with bread and 
butter, pepper,' salt, sweet herbs, onions, and a 
little mace. Roll the beef, tie it securely with a 
strong twine, and roast or bake it in the usual 
way, taking especial care that it is colored lightly, 
and not allowed to dry. This is a handsome and 
delicious dish. Remove the string before serving. 

Baked Tenderloin. 

Take a tenderloin, whole, out of a large beef, 
flour it well, set it in an oven, with a cup of water, 
to keep it from burning. When it begins to bake, 
baste it frequently with flour and butter rolled 
together, and occasionally with the water from the 
dripping-pan. When it is done of a light brown, 
with a crust all over the surface, dish it up, make 
the gravy, and pour it over the tenderloin. 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 195 

If your family is large, you will scarcely get as 

rauch as you wish of this delicious and delicate 

dish. 

Collared Beef* 

Take a flank of fresh beef, draw out the bones, 
lay it on a tray or dish, and salt it slightly, adding 
a small spoonful of saltpeter. Let it remain two 
days, then wash ofl:' the salt, sprinkle it with 
pounded mace, cinnamon, allspice, and a spoonful 
of brown sugar. Roll it up tightly, tie a towel 
over it closely, and boil it for three hours rapidly; 
then take it out of the pot ; place a weight on it 
till cold. On the following day unroll the towel, 
take out your beef, and slice it for breakfast or tea. 

To Stew Beef. 

Cut your beef into thin slices, wash it clean, put 
it in a stewpan, and cover it with water; let it 
boil till tender, then rub a large spoonful of butter, 
with a moderate one of flour, stir it into the water 
containing the beef, with a seasoning of salt, pep- 
per, a little onion, and a small sprig of marjoram. 
If you have any cold, boiled Irish potatoes, slice 
them in your stew ; it will improve it. 

Hunters' Beef. 

With one quart of salt mix 
Two ounces of saltpeter. 
Half ounce of cloves. 
Half ounce of mace. 
Half ounce of allspice. 
Half ounce of nutmeg. 
One tablespoouful of sugar. 



196 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

Take the bone from the middle of a large, fat, 
tender round of beef; fill the hole with the above 
mixture, and rub it well over the whole round. 
Have ready a wooden tub, which will just hold the 
round; sprinkle in some salt, with a handful of the 
above mixture, put in the round, and cover the top 
with the remainder of the mixture. Cover the tub 
closely, set it in a cool place for two weeks, when 
it will be ready for use. 

Cover the bottom of a Dutch oven with paste, 
lay your round in, cover it with paste also, then 
pour a cup of water in the bottom of the oven, 
cover it close, and bake it slowly five hours. 
When done, take off the crust, shave off a thin 
slice from the top of the round. Serve it cold. A 
very excellent dish for a supper. 

Hash. 

Cut your meat into small pieces with a knife 
and fork; do not chop it fine; then put it in a 
saucepan, with a little water, salt, pepper, and 
butter rolled in flour; stir it frequently, and let it 
stew till the gravy is of a proper consistency. 
Then dish your hash in a covered dish. 

Cold turkey or any other kind of poultry, cold 
beef or any other kind of meat, will make good 
hash for breakfast. 

To Broil Ham. 

Cut it in thin slices, lay them in cold water to 
extract the salt, wipe the slices, and lay them on 
a clean, greased gridiron over dull coals. Turn 
them when they appear slightly browned on one 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETa 197 

Bide, and brown the other. Do not suffer them to 
remain till dry and hard. 

Browning for Sonp or Gravies. 

Melt a spoonful of sugar with a spoonful of but- 
ter, and let the mixture remain over the fire till 
quite brown, then add a glass of water; stir it well 
together, and bottle it for use. A tablespoonful is 
sufficient to brown a tureen of soup. 

To Boil a Ham and Serve it* 

Lay your ham in cold water overnight. In the 
morning scrape it clean, and lay it in fresh water 
till time to boil it. Weigh your ham, and put it 
on in time to allow a quarter of an hour for every 
pound, and a quarter of an hour to be heated 
through. Let it boil slowly. If you allow it to 
boil hard, it may be done before the time, and will 
become by the time appointed too much done. 
This should be looked to; and if, on piercing it 
with a fork, there is difficulty in drawing it out, the 
ham is not yet done; but if the fork comes out 
readily, take your ham from the fire, it is done. 
There is another way to know if your ham is done. 
If the bone attached to the thigh-joint is loose and 
easily withdrawn, your ham is certainly done. 

When your ham is done, take the pot off the 
fire till it is time to prepare your ham for table. 
The usual way is to draw off the skin, and send the 
ham to table hot. If you wish to dress your ham, 
there are several handsome modes of doing this. 
First, leave oh the skin, and, while your ham is 
warm, with a sharp-pointed penknife cut a bunch of 

17* 



198 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

flowers and leaves on the skin, then draw off care- 
fully all the superfluous bits of skin. This is a 
very handsome mode, and shows well, particularly 
after the ham is cold. Another way is to brush it 
over with a batter made of the yelks of eggs and 
milk, to sift pounded cracker over this, and stick 
cloves over the ham in any fanciful manner, then 
set the ham in an oven and brown it. When you 
dish your ham, dress the hock with fringed white 
paper. 

To Boil a Round of Corned Beef. 

K your round has been long in the pickle, soak 
it several hours before boiling. Weigh it, and 
allow it the same time to boil as for a ham. Keep 
a kettle of boiling water near for the purpose of 
filling up your pot as it boils down. The water 
should cover the meat %oeU throughout the boiling. 
Skim your pot often, and when your meat is done 
wash it well, that no appearance of the scum de- 
faces it ; then with a sharp knife shave oft* a thin 
slice from the upper surface before sending it to 
table. This displays its fresh, ruddy complexion. 

To Poll a Smoked Tongue. 

It should be soaked overnight, and boiled till, 
on piercing it with a fork, it is found quite tender 
and does not cling to the fork in drawing it out. 

Venison PastF. 

Take a shoulder of venison, wash it clean, and 
soak it well, to free it from the blood; then put it 
m cold water, and let it boil till perfectly tender; 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 199 

take it out of the pot and cut the meat- off in con- 
venient slices. Strain the water in which it was 
boiled into a clean stewpan. 

Now line a deep baking-dish with puff paste, 
place a large, clean towel, folded up to rise in the 
center, in the baking-dish, cover it with a sheet of 
puff paste, and ornament the borders of the pie 
with a wreath of paste leaves cut out with a jag- 
ging-iron. Place your pie in a slow oven, and 
bake it lightly. Take a half pound of fresh butter 
and rub into it a spoonful of flour, then melt the 
mixture with a tablespoonful of mixed spices, that 
is to say, a little cinnamon, mace, allspice, and nut- 
meg, with the rind of a lemon, grated, thyme, and 
marjoram. Mix this with the boiling water in the 
fitewpan along with the sliced venison. Let all boil 
together well, then add a couple of glasses of best 
Madeira wine, and having removed the towel from 
the inside of the baking-dish, pour in the contents 
of the stewpan, put on the top crust again, and set 
the pie in the oven for a few moments 

staffed Leg of Venison. 

As venison is usually a winter dish, take care 
that it is not frozen when it is put to roast. Ob- 
serve your venison overnight, and if frozen, put it 
to soak during the night in a large tub of cold 
water. See that it is entirely submerged. In the 
morning, when it is thoroughly thawed, wipe it 
dry, and lay it on a dish or tray. Make incisions 
of an inch and a half apart with a sharp knife, 
moving the point inside the meat, so as to con- 



200 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

tain the more stuffing. Now mix together in a 
bowl — 

One handful of fat pork or bacon, chopped fine. 

One small silver-skinned onion, chopped fine. 

One tablespoonful of sugar. 

One tablespoonful of mixed spices, ground fine. 

One handful of marjoram, thyme, and parsley, 
all chopped fine. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half teaspoon ful of red pepper. 

A lump of butter the size of an egg, and moisten 
all with one egg. 

Stuff* your venison, dredge on flour, and roast or 
bake as directed for beef. When it is done, pour 
over it a glassful of Madeira wine. 

A leg of mutton dressed in this way is excel- 
lent. 

A Staffed Leg of Yenison No. 2. 

Cut deep incisions all over your leg of venison, 
then stuff* it with the following mixture : 

A handful of chopped fat pork. 

A handful of bread-crumbs. 

A spoonful of sugar. 

A spoonful of salt. 

A spoonful of spices (mixed). 

A teaspoonful of telery seed, or a handful of 
chopped celery. 

Then place the venison in a Dutch oven, with a 
little water in the bottom, and a thick sheet of 
white paper on the top. 

Put a little fire under the oven, and a little 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 201 

on the heated lid, let the vension cook slowly for 
an hour, and then gradually increase the heat till 
you find the paper quite brown, and the water 
dried in the oven. Now take off the paper, put a 
large spoonful of butter rubbed in flour in the 
oven ; let it fry brown ; then pour in water from 
the boiling kettle, stirring all the while. Move 
your venison about frequently to prevent it stick- 
ing. Cover it up, but from time to time open the 
oven and baste the meat with the gravy. When it 
has remained two hours and a half, pierce it to the 
bone with a fork; if no blood exudes, it is done. 
Pour over it a glass of Madeira wine, let it remain 
a little, and then serve. 

To Dress Venison in a Chafing-dish. 

Set your chafing-dish on the table, and light 
your spirit-lamp. Rub a teaspoonful of flour into 
a tablespoonful of fresh butter, and place it in the 
hot chafing-dish. Let it fry till of a light-brown 
color. Then add a few spoonfuls of water, with a 
little mace, cinnamon, nutmeg, a few cloves, and 
grated rind of a lemon in its juice. Now add some 
thin slices of venison, and put on the cover of the 
chafing-dish for a little while, then open it and turn 
the steaks. Cover the venison again for a few 
minutes more, then open the chafing-dish again, 
and sprinkle over the steaks a little salt and red 
pepper. Pour over them a glass of Madeira wine, 
cover them up again for a few more minutes, and 
then eat them with currant jelly. 



202 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC, 

Yenison Steaks in the Woods* 

Cut some large, thin slices off the ham, lay them 
over bright coals; when brown on one side turn 
them, and as soon as both sides are brown, salt, 
pepper, and butter them; then eat them imme- 
diately with your hunters' loaf, and water from the 
spring. 

Boiled Leg of Matton. 

Have ready a pot of boiling water, wash your leg 
of mutton, cut off the hock, and drop it in the boil- 
ing water. Boil it gently, allowing a quarter of an 
hour for every pound. Skim the water frequently, 
and keep the pot well covered ; fill up the pot with 
hot water from your teakettle as it boils down ; to 
fill up with cold water will harden the meat. When 
you think your meat is done, prick it with a fork, 
and if no bloody water follows, you have judged 
rightly. If you like it rare, then dish it up some- 
what sooner. 

Make a sauce of drawn butter and hard-boiled 
eggs, chopped up, and serve a portion of it in a 
boat, the remainder pour dver your leg of mutton. 
Garnish it and the sides of the dish with sprigs of 
fresh parsley. 

Mutton Stew* 

Take a leg of mutton which has been served the 
day previous, and put it in a pot without cutting it 
up. Cover it with water, and let it simmer, and 
then add a spoonful of butter rubbed up with as 
much flour, and stir it smoothly; then cut up 
boiled Irish potatoes, with a pod of pepper, a little 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC, 203 

salt, and a bunch of thyme, if you like it. Let the 
stew simmer for an hour, and when you have 
placed it in the dish, lay the potatoes around it, 
and pour the gravy over the whole. It should be 
a deep dish. 

Mattott" steaks* 

Take them from the thigh, saw through the 
bone, and have your steaks of a fine oval shape. 
Broil them as beefsteaks ; butter, pepper, and salt 
them, and serve hot. 

Matton Sonp 

May be made from the water in which mutton is 
boiled the previous day, in winter. It requires 
high, seasoning and a quantity of vegetables. 

Soyer's Crab-sbaped Matton-chops* 

Take a medium-sized saddle of mutton, and saw 
through the backbone, between each pair of op- 
posite ribs. This will give you a crab-shaped chop. 
Trim oft* the superfluous ends of the ribs; wash, 
salt, and flour your chops, and broil them nicely 
on a gridiron over bright coals. When they are 
done, place them two in a dish, and butter them 
well while hot; or, as soon as they are browned, 
place them in a covered frying-pan, with a lump 
of butter rubbed in a little flour. Let them brown. 
Take them out, pour in the pan a little water from 
your teakettle, stir it about, let it boil up, and pour 
the gravy over your chops in the dish which goes 
to table. 

The crab-shaped chop will make two ordinary 



204 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

chops if parted at the backbone. These are to be 
dressed in the same manner as above. 

Veal Catlets. 

Wash your cutlets, and parboil them, then wipe 
them dry with a clean towel. Have ready a frying- 
pan of hot lard, and a dish of ponnded crackers. 
In another dish have two or three eggs beaten up 
with two or three spoonfuls of rich, sweet cream; 
lay your cutlets in the eggs first (both sides), then 
in the crackers, after which put them in the boiling 
lard. Be careful not to move your cutlets about in 
the frying-pan, as that will cause the crust to fall 
off. Turn them gently when brown on the under 
side. Salt and pepper your cutlets slightly, also 
the mixture of eggs and cream. After dishing 
your cutlets, add to the lard remaining in the 
frying-pan a lump of butter rubbed in very little 
flour, a little chopped parsley or celery, then pour 
in a cup of boiling water from your teakettle, stir 
it briskly till very smooth gravy, let it boil awhile, 
then serve it in a gravy-boat. 

Your cutlet, if properly attended to, will present 
a very inviting appearance, being of a handsome 
yellow-brown color, with a crispy coat, which would 
be destroyed by pouring the gravy over it. 

To Roast a Pig. 

Take a fat pig, six weeks old, have it dressed 
carefully ; wash it well in fair water. Trim out all 
the inside of the ears and mouth ; cut out the 
tongue, and chop off the extremity of the snout. 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 205 

Wash your pig again thoroughly inside and out, 
then rub it throughout well with a mixture of salt, 
pepper, and sage. 

Stuff your pig with bread, butter, salt, pepper, 
sage, and thyme, then sew it up carefully. Spit it 
lengthwise, and, having dredged it with flour, place 
it before the fire to roast. Put some water in 
your dripping-pan ; have a larding-mop ready, with 
butter and flour mixed in a plate; mop over your 
pig frequently with these while it is roasting. Set 
your tin-kitchen two feet from the fire at first, but 
gradually draw it nearer till the pig is well browned. 
Do not bring it too near, or it will scorch. 

When done take it up, and pour the gravy into 
a saucepan, let it boil to a proper consistency. 
Chop up the liver and toes (which must be pre- 
viously boiled) in the gravy, and serve it in a boat. 

To Roast or Bake a Leg of Pork. 

Score it through the skin in diamonds or squares, 
and roast or bake it as beef or mutton. It will re- 
quire more time. Season the gravy with sage, 
pepper, and salt. 

To Bake a Pig* 

Prepare and season it as for roast pig. Leave 
your stove door open when you first put it in. As 
your pig bakes, gradually close the door, as di- 
rected for baked beef, mopping it well, from time 
to time, with flour and butter, occasionally wetting 
it over with the gravy or water in the dripping- 
pan. Turn it frequently. 

18 



206 MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 

To Bake Lamb* 

There is no difference in baking lamb and any 
other fresh meat, except that it will take less time 
with the same fire, and requires close attention to 
prevent burning. The gravy is made, too, in the 
same way as for other meats. 

Lamb Pie* 

Cover the bottom of a baking-dish with Crust, 
then fill it with slices of cold lamb, salting and 
peppering each larger slice, adding bits of butter 
rubbed in flour with every layer. When full, pour 
in water to cover the lamb, and over all lay a neat 
crust of good pastry. Let it bake slowly. 

An excellent and plentiful Dinner for a poor Family. 

Get a set of beef or calf's feet from the butcher, 
clean them thoroughly, and put them in salt and 
water to soak overnight. In the morning quite 
early, say at six o'clock, wash them in several more 
waters, break the bones in several places, and put 
them in a pot full of water to boil. K they keep 
regularly boiling, they will be tender at eleven 
o'clock, when the bones can be easily withdrawn 
from the meat ; take out the feet, and, without the 
bones, put them in a bowl of salt and water, with 
a little vinegar. Now add to the water in the pot 
a small cup of rice, a few small potatoes, cut up 
(Irish or sweet), with two grated carrots, a turnip, 
a few beans or peas, and a sprig of thyme. Set it 
boiling, and keep it so till near the time for your 
dinner, when cut the meat off* the feet into nice 



MEATS ROASTED, BAKED, BOILED, ETC. 207 

pieces, salt, pepper, flour, and fry them a yellow 
brown in sweet lard. These in a dish, your soup 
in a tureen, with bread and potatoes, will make a 
very savory and acceptable dinner for a moderate- 
sized family. 

Oz*tail Soup and Stew* 

Two or three ox tails from the butcher make 
excellent soup in the same way as above, and 
when tender, the meat, with the marrow which 
will be found on the soup, will make a very nice 
stew. 

An ox's head also will be nice, prepared in the 
same manner, cleaned and baked. 

These things cost but a few cents. 

Pork and Beans* 

Boil your pork till quite done, skin it, and score 
it in squares ; sprinkle it with flour. 

Boil also your beans till quite soft, place them 
in a baking-dish neatly, place your pork in the 
center, and brown them in a moderate oven. 

Tripe. 

Clean it thoroughly by scraping, soaking in salt 
water, and scalding, then boil it till very tender, 
after which lay it away in salt and water and vin- 
egar till the following day ; it will then be ready to 
cut in squares, and fried in lard. Flour and pepper 
it before frying. 

Chitterlings 

Are prepared in the same way, except that they 
require to be in salt water longer, and to have it 
changed oftener. 



208 EOOS, MACARONI, ETC. 



To Boil Eggs. 

Choose eggs two days pld. Take care that the 
water is boiling. Three minutes will boil them 
soft, six will have them hard. 

To Fry Eggs. 

Put your frying-pan over a moderate bed of 
coals, throw into it a spoonful of lard, butter, or 
ham gravy. Allow it to become very hot, then 
break your eggs, one by one, in a saucer, and 
turn it carefully into the frying-pan. Do not break 
the yelks. When set, throw the butter over each 
egg with a spoon. Do not turn them. Cut oft* all 
the dark fragments before sending to table. 

To Fry Eggs with Ham. 

Having cut your ham into thin slices, and pared 
oft' the skins, wash them, and fry them lightly, then 
having turned them, break an egg on each slice. 
Let them remain thus till set, then brown them with 
a salamander or shovel ; or you may remove the 
ham and fry the eggs separately. Place the ham 
on the dish with the eggs on each slice. 

To Poach Eggs. 

Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, into 
which carefully break your eggs one by one. As 
soon as the whites are set, take them up with a 
perforated ladle. Pour on them melted butter. 
The water should barely cover the eggs. 



EQQSy MACARONI, ETC. 209 

Jllacaroni. 

Put your macaroni in boiling milk and water. 
When it becomes tender take it out and drain it. 
For half a pound, beat up the yelks of two fresh 
eggs, with a full tablespoonful of melted butter, 
then add a saltspoon of salt, one of red pepper, 
two of mustard, and half a pint of sweet cream. 
Have ready two teacupfuls of grated cheese, then 
fill up your baking-pan with alternate layers of 
macaroni, cheese, and the prepared seasoning, 
taking care that the cheese and the seasoning 
make the surface of the dish. Bake in a moderate 
oven, and serve hot. 

Macaroni No. 2. 

Boil half a pound of the macaroni as in the fore- 
going receipt ; fill up a baking-dish with alternate 
layers of macaroni and slices of new cheese, well 
buttered, and sprinkled slightly with mustard, then 
pour over the whole a cup of cream, in which you 
have dissolved a teaspoonful of white sugar. 

Scrambled Eggs* 

Melt a spoonful of butter in a frying-pan over 
the fire, break in eight or ten eggs, one by one, 
stirring all the while, with a fork, rapidly. When 
done, sprinkle in a little salt and pepper. Serve 
hot, in a covered dish. 

Egg Pie* 

Boil a dozen eggs hard, and slice them, lay them 
in a crust, with alternate layers of grated ham or 

18* 



210 EGGS, MACARONI, ETO, 

miDced cold chicken; butter, pepper, salt, and a 
cup of cream poured over all. Cover the pie with 
a crust, and bake it. Serve hot. 

To Roast Eggs. 

Make a puncture in the large end of the Qggy 
then pour water over it, and cover it in hot ashes 
in front of the fire, from whence you may easily 
take it when done. 

To Toast Cheese* 

Toast thin slices of light bread, to cover the 
bottom of a baking-dish or plate, then butter slices 
of nqw cheese, lay them on the toasted bread, and 
moisten the whole with a small quantity of cream, 
with a little mustard in it. Brown your cheese in 
a quick oven, and serve it very hot. 

Another viode. — Toast thin slices of bread and 
butter, then, while warm, place them in plates, 
cover them well with grated cheese, and an upper 
layer of butter. Brown quickly, and serve hot. 



OMELETS. 

No.l. 

Break eight eggs into a bowl, and beat them till 
very light. Mix a teaspoonful of flour in a cup of 
sweet cream or milk, add this to the eggs, with a 
little chopped celery or parsley, and pepper and 
salt. Beat all well together. Melt a large spoonful 
of butter in an oval frying-pan, pour in the omelet 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. gU 

to cover the whole pan, and let it fry till brown. 
Do not turn it, but with a large knife roll it up as 
you would a sheet of paper, and serve it hot. 

No. 2. 

Melt a spoonful of butter with one of flour (the 
batter largest) in a stewpan, then break the yelks of 
eight eggs into the contents of the stewpan, stirring 
them well ; then whip the whites of the eggs to a 
stiflT froth, add a cup of rich cream, add these to 
the yelks and butter, with chopped parsley, onion, 
pepper, and salt. Pour all into a small frying-pan, 
and fry the omelet brown. Do not turn it, but 
brown it with a salamander. Remove it carefully 
to a dish, and serve it hot. 

This omelet is very nice baked in a greased pau 
or dish. 



« OBATIES AND SAUOES. 

Thb best gravies for roast meats are made from 
the browned drippings from them 'during the pro- 
cess of roasting, as directed in a number of my fore- 
going receipts. Yet is it sometimes well, especially 
for baked meats, to cut off trimmings from the 
joint, and fry them brown, with flour, for gravy. 
In this case, pour in boiling water, and stir up the 
browned bits till a thick gravy is formed, then add 
a lump of butter, pepper, salt, and onion, if you 
like. 

This is a nice gravy for veal cutlets, especially if a 



212 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

cup of sweet cream is added, and a small teaspoon- 
ful of curry-powder. Chickens fried crisp and 
brown are much improved by curry gravy. It 
should be poured over them. 

Egg Sauce* 

Put into a saucepan a large tablespoonful of fresh 
butter, with a spoonful of sifted flour ; let the but- 
ter melt a little, and theiv mix it well with the flour, 
then pour on boiling water sufficient to make a 
thick batter; let it boil, stirring it all the while, 
till done, then add the yelks of four hard-boiled 
eggs, a little salt, pepper, and parsley. Serve in 
a boat, hot. 

White sauce, for boiled fowl or turkey, is made 
in the same way, leaving out the egg^ and adding 
a cup of rich, sweet cream. 

Sauce for boiled chickens is made in the same 
manner, with a little of the water in which they 
were boiled. 

Cranberry Sauce* 

Stew your cranberries in a covered saucepan till 
soft, then pulp* them through a hair sieve, return 
them to the saucepan, with equal weight of good 
brown sugar, and a spoonful of, butter. A little 
water should be added, or the sauce will be too 
thick. To be served hot. 

Shrimp Sauce* 

Take a pint of fresh shrimps, pick and shell 
them carefully, then put them into a saucepan, 
with half a pound of fresh butter; season with 
Cayenne pepper and a little salt* 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES, 213 

The flavor of shrimps should not be marred by 
any additions whatever. Serve them hot. 

liobster Sauce* 

Choose a fresh, lively hen lobster. A heavy one, 
if possible. Scald it to death at once, then pick out 
all the spawn and red coral; "pound these in a 
mortar, moisten them with a spoonful of hot water, 
and one of melted butter, thfen pass the mixture 
through a hair sieve. Ifow tjut up all the meat of 
your lobster into small pieces, put the meat with 
the pounded spawn, add a quarter of a pound more 
of melted butter; place the whole in a porcelain 
saucepan, with a very little cream, and Cayenne 
pepper ; cover it, and let it stew slowly over a dull 
bed of coals. It must not boil. This would de- 
prive it of its fine coral color. To be served hot. 

Mashroom Sauce* 

This sauce is excellent with fish, flesh, or fowl. 
Pick your mushrooms carefully, take ofl:*the stems, 
and rinse them in clean water, handling them gently ; 
then put them in a stewpan, with an equal quantity 
of rich, sweet cream, and a spoonful of butter. 
Cover them closely, and let them stew till quite 
soft, then pulp them, cream and all, through a hair 
sieve. Return them to the stewpan, after washing 
it ; let them stew gently till ready to serve. Season 
with salt and pepper to your taste. 

Asparagus Sauce'* 

Take tender white shoots of asparagus, and stew 
them ill water just sufficient to cover them. When 



214 SA UCES, 

Boft, take them out of the water, and stir them well 
into as much new milk as will cover them. Pass 
the whole through a sieve; add a spoonful of fresh 
butter, and return them to the stewpan ; let them 
simmer gently till served. Season them with salt 
and pepper to your taste. The yelks of two hard- 
boiled eggs will improve them. 

Tomato Sauce* 

After washing and carefully stemming your ripe, 
sound tomatoes, simmer them till soft, then pass 
them through a sieve, and, after adding butter, 
bread-crumbs soaked in new milk, salt, pepper, 
and a little sugar, stew them several hours, till of 
a rich, thick consistency. Stir them often while 
stewing. Serve very hot. 

Anchovy Sauce* 

A pound and a half of anchovies. 

A quart of strong vinegar. 

A glass of brandy. 

A glass of port wine. 

Two lemons, sliced. 

Mace, cloves, allspice, cinnamon, nutmeg, each a 
teaspoonful ; with onion, thyme, savory or marjo- 
ram, Cayenne pepper, as much as you like, or omit 
these last, if you choose. 

Stew all well together, strain through a hair 
sieve, and bottle close. Reserve the brandy till 
the sauce is cold, and add it just before bottling. 

Oyster Sauce* 

Take a quart of fine, fresh oysters out of their 
liquor, and stew them in a pint of sweet, new milk, 



FILLING, 216 

with pepper, salt, and some bits of mace ; stir to- 
gether a large spoonful of fresh butter, with a tea- 
spoonful of sifted flour ; add this to the sauce while 
stewing. Stir it well, till smoothly mixed, then 
give it the finishing flavor, with a cup of rich, 
sweet cream, and a spoonful of eschalot essence. 

Celery Sauce* 

Cut up the well-bleached parts of two fine heads 
of solid celery, stew the celery in one pint of water 
till tender, then rub into a large spoonful of butter 
a small spoonful of flour, add these to the celery, 
with a cup of sweet cream. Let it boil a little, 
and serve hot. 

This is a delicious sauce with poultry or wild 
fowl. 

Mint Sance* 

Make a rich syrup of clarifipd sugar, chop fine a 
head of fresh mint, stir it in while the syrup is cold, 
and serve immediately, with a spoonful of vinegar. 
The flavor is injured by cooking. 

Some use simply brown sugar, vinegar, and 
chopped mint. 



riLLIUG. 

For a Tnrkey* 

Bread-crumbs, wet with sweet milk. 

A spoonful of butter. 

One egg. 

A little thyme, pepper, and salt. 



216 TO PREPARE POULTRY, ETC. 

For a Goose* 

Bread-crumbs, wet with milk. 

A spoonful of butter. 

A spoouful of sage (powdered). 

A spoouful of thyme. 

Pepper, salt, and an apple chopped up fine. 

One egg. 

For ducks and a pig, the same. 

For a Ham. 

A cupful of bread-crumbs, soaked in milk. 

Six cloves. 

Six grains of allspice. 

One stick of cinnamon; all pounded fine. 

Cayenne pepper, a very little. 

Marjoram. 

Savory. 

Thyme. 

Parsley; each a teaspoonful, rubbed, and sifted 
fine. 

A teaspoonful of melted butter, and an egg, all 
mixed well together. 



TO PEEPAEE POULTRY POR BOASTING OR 

BOILING. 

After having cut off the head, and suffered your 
fowl to bleed thoroughly, pick it carefully. Do 
not break the skin. Singe off all the fine hairs. 
Then lay your fowl on a board, and with a sharp 
knife cut a slit over the intestines, just under the 



TO PREPARE POULTRY, ETC. 217 

thigh, and- another on the back of the neck. Now 
insert a finger of one hand into the latter incision, 
and push down the crop and its contents, while 
the other hand draws the intestines out at the lower 
incision, which was made under the thigh. Do 
this gently and slowly, for if you, through haste, 
should break the intestines, nothing can ever re- 
move their disagreeable odor and taste from your 
fowl. 

Having drawn your fowl, put your knife inside 
the lower incision, and cut off* the piece of external 
skin attached to the lower intestine. This done, 
lay your fowl in a tub of clean water, wash it 
thoroughly, and change the water several times; 
then take it out, and wipe it dry, inside and out: 
after which rub it slightly with salt and pepper 
(inside as well as outside). 

If a turkey or chicken, make a filling of bread- 
crumbs, butter, pepper, and salt, moistened with 
^gg'y and having filled your fowl, place the thighs 
and wings firmly by the side with skewers ; tie a 
cord around the neck, and the extreme ends of the 
legs, with the extremity of the fowl. Dredge on 
flour, as directed for beef, and other roast meats, 
and proceed as before directed. 

If your turkey or fowl is to be boiled, have ready 
a pot of boiling water, dip a towel into it, then, 
after rubbing it with flour, inclose your fowl or 
turkey ; tie it tightly, and drop it into your pot of 
boiling water. A large hen will take an hour and 
a half or two hours, a turkey hen two hours. 
When you think it is done, thrust a large darn- 

19 



218 POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC, 

ing-needle into the breast or thigh ; if it goes in 
readily, it is done, if not, let it boil longer. 

When done, turn it out on a dish, with its own 
gravy; cut up two hard-boiled eggs in thin, round 
slices, lay them over the fowl, with fresh sprigs 
of parsley. Drawn butter, with hard-boiled eggs, 
is the usual sauce. Some use oysters. 

If your fowl is roasted, cut up hard-boiled eggs 
for the gravy. 

If you have a pair of ducks to roast, the season- 
ing and stuffing should be mixed with sage, marjo- 
ram, and onions. 

The same for a goose. To be roasted in the 
same manner as a turkey or chicken. Some per- 
sons bake them in a Dutch oven. (See Stuffing.) 

Fried Chickens* 

Cut up your chickens, wash them clean, salt and 
pepper them. Have ready boiling lard, flour your 
chickens, and fry them a light brown. Serve with- 
out gravy ; the dish is handsomer. 

Some fry little flat cakes of Indian meal, and 
cover the bottom of the dish with them before 
laying on the chicken; these are called corn- 
dodgers. 

Some persons pour a little boiling water into the 
browned lard in which the chickens have been 
fried, stirring it well, till a rich gravy is formed. 
This is sent to table in a gravy-boat, as an accom- 
paniment for the fried chicken. 

Parsley should be chopped and fried with this 
gravy, and a little butter added. 



POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC, 219 

Broiled Chickens. 

Truss them flat; salt, pepper, and flour them, 
then broil them a nice brown ; butter them well, 
and serve hot. Cover them while broiling, to keep 
them juicy. 

Boned Turkey* 

Take a fine, fat turkey, that has been nicely 
plucked, without breaking the skin, and without 
being drawn, lay it on a board before you, and, 
with a sharp and pointed knife, gash it to the bone, 
beginning at the back of the neck, and ending at 
the tail. Now lay your turkey on its side, with 
the breast nearest to you ; begin at the back, and 
scrape the meat from the bone, downward, till you 
come to the wing and thigh. Loosen all the meat 
from the thigh and wing, scraping it clean, till you 
come to the joints of the pinion, and drum-stick or 
leg; leave these in, by separating the joint, they 
will serve to keep the turkey in shape after the 
bones are all out. Now continue the scraping till 
you have loosened all the meat down to the ex- 
tremity of the breastbone, when you must turn 
your turkey over on the opposite side, and pro- 
ceed as before with it, leaving on the parson's 
nose ; cut off' the vent. Now pass your knife 
around the edge of the breastbone, and the boning 
is complete. Take out your carcass, and prepare 
to fill your turkey for dressing. Shred fine a 
pound of well-risen light bread, mix with it half a 
pound of fresh butter, with a little salt, chopped 
celery, and a half teaspoonful of red pepper. To 



220 POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC. 

this add two qaarts of best oysters, drained, and 
well picked; mix all well together, and fill your 
turkey, sewing it up carefully. Now turn your 
turkey, breast uppermost, and placing the pinion 
and leg in the natural position, skewer them down 
firmly, and truss neatly, with the aid of a bit of 
tape or cord. Rub with salt and red pepper all 
over, dredge on flour to form a nice crust, and 
place the turkey in a baking-dish, set it in the oven, 
and let it bake till thoroughly done, and of a light, 
handsome brown. While baking, baste it fre- 
quently with the gravy which will be found in the 
baking-dish. 

When your turkey is done, allow it to remain in 
the baking-dish till cold, and the form well settled. 
It is best cold. But if intended for dinner, it 
must be transferred to the china dinner-dish as 
Boon as done. 

Prepare the gravy as for plain roasted turkey, 
with oysters. 

There should be a cup of water, and a large 
spoonful of butter in the baking-pan, wherewith to 
baste the turkey. Use a pocket-knife. 

To make a Chicken Pie. 

Cut up a pair of fat chickens, carefully cleaned, 
and drawn, put them in a saucepan, with water to 
cover them, and a little salt. Cover them, and let 
them boil till tender. Skim them well. 

Make a nice crust, with a quart of flour and half 
a pound of butter or lard, wet up with sweet milk 
and water. Cover a baking-dish with the crust, 



POULTRY, BIRDS, ETO. 221 

then sprinkle your chickens with a little fine black 
pepper and a good deal of sifted flour ; lay them 
in the crust, with bits of butter rolled in flour; fill 
up the pie with the water in which the chickens 
were boiled, then cover the pie with a neatly 
fitting crust. 

Ornament the top of the pie with thin leaves of 
paste, cut out with a jagging-iron. Bake in a slow 
oven, and serve hot. 

Partridge or Pigeon Pie. 

This pie is made as chicken pie. 

Gravy for Broiled Chickens or Partridges. 

Melt a small spoonful of butter in a saucepan, 
and then dredge in a spoonful of sifted flour, let it 
brown in the butter, then add a little boiling water, 
with pepper, salt, and chopped hard-boiled Qgg. 
When this has boiled, pour it over your chickens 
after they are in the dish. 

Potted Partridges* 

Truss and stuft* your partridges as you do fowls, 
then melt a spoonful of butter in a small pot, and 
then dredge in a spoonful of flour, and wait till it 
is browned; flour also your partridges, and put 
them in the pot, with a cup of water ; set the pot 
over the fire, and when the birds begin to brown, 
shake the pot frequently, turning the birds from 
side to side till browned all over. When done, 
place them side by side neatly in the dish, and 
pour the gravy over them. , 

This is a dainty dish, good enough for a queen. 

19* 



222 POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC. 

To Roast or Bake a Goose. 

Have a fat young goose nicely plucked and 
cleaned, then rub it well, outside and in, with a 
mixture of salt, sage, pepper, and marjoram, and 
stuftMt with bread-crumbs, seasoned with the mix- 
ture above mentioned. Truss it neatly, dredge 
plenty of flour over it, and roast it or bake it as in 
directions already given for baked or roasted meats 
or fowl. 

Ducks are usually prepared, seasoned, stuflFed, 
and baked or roasted as above, except that they 
should be done quickly, rather underdone. 

The juice of a lemon squeezed into the gravy 
will improve it very much. Currant jelly or cran- 
berries are an agreeable sauce for ducks. 

Canvas-back Ducks 

Should be parboiled, with a carrot inside, to ex- 
tract the fishy taste, in case they might have any, 
and then the carrot should be removed, the ducks 
stuflFed with bread-crumbs, and butter, pepper, and 
salt. 

Boast them as in the above receipt. Sauces the 
same, with a glass of wine poured over the ducks 
just before taking them from the fire. 

Pelau No. 1. 

Boil a pair of fat young fowls, and when done 
take them from the pot, and having thrown oS 
half the water, put in a pint of best rice, well 
washed and picked. Let the rice boil till done^ 
then stir into it a good spoonful of fresh butter, 



POULTRY, BIBDS, ETC. 228 

with a little pepper and salt. Lay some of the rice 
in a dish, place the fowls on it, and with the re- 
mainder of the rice form a mound. Brush it over 
with egg, and set it in the oven to brown. 

Pelan No. 2. 

Boil a pint of rice by the Carolina receipt, then 
mix butter, pepper, and salt with it, and stuff* a fat, 
full-grown fowl with half of it, if necessary ; then 
stew your fowl in water, with butter, flour, and the 
yelks of two eggs. When your fowl is done, place 
the remainder of your boiled rice in a dish, shape 
it into a mound, and place your fowl on the sum* 
mit, after which' pour the gravy in which it was 
stewed over the whole. 

Pelan No. 3. 

Half-grown chickens, cut up in the usual way, with 
a few slices of nice bacon or ham, then boiled with 
rice, as in above receipts, make a very nice pelau. 
When done, take out the chickens and bacon, add 
butter, pepper, and a little salt to the rice ; put the 
chickens neatly on the rice in a dish, and pour 
drawn butter, with chopped hard-boiled eggs, over 
the whole. 

Bmnswick Stew* 

Four hours before you intend to have dinner, 
put in a stewpan five quarts of water, with two or 
three slices of bacon, and an onion, sliced. Let 
the water boil for an hour, then add two quarts 
of peeled tomatoes, four or five ears of corn (cut 
off the cobs), four Irish potatoes, sliced, and a few 



224 POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC. 

butter-beans. As soon as the stew begins to boil, 
cut up a pair of tender chickens or squirrels, add 
them to the stew, and suffer it to boil till the flesh 
drops from the bone: then thicken with bread- 
crumbs, and it is ready to serve. 

A Pot- Pie. 

Line a small pot with pie-crust, fill it with 
chickens, cut up and season as for stewed chicken, 
cover the whole with a crust, cut a small hole in 
the center, and place it over a moderate fire till 
done. When done, put the soft top crust in the 
bottom of the dish, place the chicken neatly on it, 
pour on the gravy, and cover the whole with the 
crusts from the sides of the pot. 

Boiled Turkey, with Oysters. 

Having cleaned, drawn, and well rinsed your 
turkey, rub it well, inside as well as outside, with 
salt and pepper, then mix a quart of oysters, with 
bread-crumbs, butter, red pepper, salt, and a little 
thyme, as stuffing for your turkey. Fill it completely, 
sew up the opening, truss the wings and thighs 
neatly by the sides of the turkey, then inclose it in 
a towel, dipped in boiling water, and well floured ; 
drop it in boiling water. Boil it a quarter of an 
hour for every pound. 

The water should boil slowly, but steadily. 
When done, turn your turkey out of the towel 
on a hot dish ; garnish with stewed oysters. 

Egg sauce, with oysters, should be eaten with 
your boiled turkey. 



POULTRY, BIRDS, ETC, 225 

Guinea Fowls* 

These should be parboiled before roasting, unless 
very young, and then they are better baked in a 
profusion of gravy, otherwise they are very dry. 
The Dutch oven is best for Guinea fowls, as the 
lid can be kept over them to prevent the steam 
from escaping, so that they are in a manner stewed. 
Brown them well. Prepare the gravy as for roast 
fowls or turkeys. 

Chickens Fried with Cream. 

After plucking, and cutting up your chickens, 
lay them for an hour in cold water, then, after 
wiping them dry, salting, peppering, and flouring, 
fry them in lard till of a handsome, light-brown 
color. Now take them from the frying-pan, and, 
after carefully taking out all the burnt bits of flour, 
pour into the pan a cup of rich, sweet cream, with 
a handful of chopped parsley, and half a teaspoon- 
fill of curry-powder. Let the gravy stew till the 
parsley is quite done, dish your chickens, and pour 
the gravy over them. 

This is a very delicious dish. 

To Fricassee Chickens. 

Cut up two fat chickens, as for chicken pie, 
wash them, and take oflF the skins, then put them 
in a stewpan of water, with a little salt. Let them 
boil till tender. Now take them out of the water, 
and skim it well or strain it ; add to the water a 
quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, stir it 



226 VEQETABLES. 

till well mixed ; add a broken pod of red pepper, a 
handful of chopped celery or parsley, and a blade 
of mace, broken to pieces; return it to the stew- 
pan, and let it boil, then return the chicken to the 
Btewpan also, with a cup of sweet cream, and two 
hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine. Stir it for a minute, 
and serve it in a covered, deep dish. 

Gumbo. 

Prepare your chicken as for stewing, and fry it 
in a quarter of a pound of butter, after flouring 
well. Wait till it is fried perfectly brown, then 
add a quart of boiling water, cover it, and let it 
boil for half an hour, and then add twenty-five 
fresh oysters, and a spoonful of gumbo (powdered 
sassafras leaves), or dry and ground okra. Add 
both red and black pepper. 



VEGETABLES. 

To boil vegetables, take care and put them in 
boiling water ; to bake them, in a hot oven. 

All vegetables should be thoroughly done, if 
cooked at all. They should be always fresh from 
the garden, if possible. 

Dried beans, peas, and corn should be soaked in 
warm water before cooking, and they require more 
time than those that are fresh gathered. 

In gathering peas, beans, or cucumbers, take 
care to select such as are young and tender, though 



VEGETABLES, 227 

you must avoid, too, an extreme in this respect. 
Practice alone will guide aright. 

Always gather your vegetables early in the 
morning; the hot sun withers and makes them 
tough or flabby. 

Peas and beans should be boiled in just enough 
water to make them tender, and it should be 
allowed to dry into them, so that none of their 
sweetness should be lost. Uncover your pot or 
stewpan as soon as they are soft, and they will be 
dry the sooner. Add your seasoning before dish- 
ing them. 

A little salt should be put in the water when 
vegetables are boiled. 

To Boil Irish Potatoes. 

Wash them very clean, but do not peel them. 
Put them in boiling water just suflicient to cover 
them. Let them boil steadily, and as soon as you 
can pierce them easily with a fork, pour oft' all the 
water, take the vessel from off the fire, but leave 
it near enough to be kept quite hot.. Double a 
coarse, clean towel, and lay it over the potatoes 
till you are ready to serve them; then peel them, 
butter them well, and send them to table very hot. 

Mashed Potatoes. 

After peeling them, lay them in cold water for 
an hour, and then boil them as in the above re- 
ceipt. 

As soon as you pour off* the water, mash them 
fine in the pot, add salt, pepper, cream or butter. 



228 VEGETABLES. 

Keep them hot till ready to serve, theD pile them 
up roughly in the dish, as balls of snow. 

Or, put the mashed potatoes in a baking-dish, 
smooth them over with egg and milk, beaten to- 
gether, and brown them in the oven. Serve in the 
baking-dish, hot. 

Potato Cakes. 

Mash boiled potatoes with cream, salt, and pep- 
per; make with the hands small, round cakes, 
flatten them, and fry them brown, or bake them. 

Sliced Potatoes Fried. 

Slice cold potatoes, and fry them in hot lard. 
These are nice for breakfast. 

Sweet Potatoes. — How to Cook them. 

Sweet potatoes should be first washed very clean, 
and baked with the skins on. Let your oven be 
quite hot at first, then gradually lessen the heat. 
If this rule is observed, the skins of your potatoes 
will be soft, and easily withdrawn. If burned by 
too much heat, you cannot easily peel them, and 
the potatoes shrink to nothing when it is off. Do 
not allow your cook to put the potatoes in the oven 
too early. An hour and a half will bake them 
well. 

Or, peel, slice thin, and salt them, then fry them 
in boiling lard. 

Or, broil them on a gridiron, and butter them 
well. 

Or, peel, split them in half, and bake them in a 



VEGETABLES. 229 

dish, with plenty of butter rubbed over them from 
time to time. Pour the butter over them from the 
baking-dish when they are done. 



HOMIUT OF BOANOKE, OB OBEAT HOMINY. 

This was an ancient American dish, a genuine 
Southern dish, it having first appeared to civilized 
eyes in 1684, on a royal board, on the Island of 
Roanoke, 

My intelligent reader will remember that on the 
arrival of Sir Walter Raleigh's first American expe- 
dition within the Pamlico Sound, that the mariners 
landed on the Island of Wokokon, and there re- 
ceived a visit from Granganemo, the chieftain or 
sovereign of Roanoke. Courtesy demanding a 
return of the royal visit, the British admirals, 
Amadas and Barlow, a few days after appeared 
oft' the royal residence, at the northern extremity 
of the Island of Roanoke. The king being absent 
on a hunting excursion, the queen, with a royal 
retinue, received the distinguished strangers at the 
water's side, and conducted them in pomp to the 
royal abode. There a sumptuous board awaited 
them, — venison, wild fowl, fish, hominy^ potatoes, 
and a variety of fruits. After having partaken of 
this lordly fare, and received the refined civilities 
of this noble and amiable American princess, the 
strangers prepared to return to Wokokon, when a 
royal escort accompanied them to their boats, fol- 

20 



280 VEGETABLES. 

lowed by attendants loaded with provisions and 
costly presents. Doubtless, among the former was 
found a goodly portion of that lordly dish, — Great 
Hominy of Roanoke. 

• And here it is gratifying to observe this early 
evidence of native hospitality and courtesy in the 
land of our birth and our love, — courtesy and hos- 
pitality imbibed with the nourishment of her 
children, and perpetuated to the present day by 
the good Old North State. 

Great Hominy No. 1« 

Pick out a dozen fine, full ears of white hominy- 
corn, shell oflF all the good grains, and put them in 
a large wooden mortar; pour on boiling water to 
cover them, then with a wooden pestle (at the lower 
end of which has been driven in an iron wedge) 
rub the corn up and down in the water till the 
husks are all loose, then remove the corn into a 
shallow tray, and winnow out all the husks. When 
this is done, return the corn to the mortar, and 
slightly break the grains. If not boiled immedi- 
ately, the hominy should be spread to dry. 

To Boil Great Hominy. 

Put your hominy into a spacious pot or boiler, 
filled with cold water, your teakettle being filled at 
the same time ; let both boil, and as the water on 
the hominy boils away, replenish from the teakettle 
(which likewise keep full). 

Boil your hominy for twelve hours, say from 
seven in the morning till seven in the evening. 
JCeep it steadily boiling all the while, filling up 



VEGETABLES, 231 

from the teakettle till the last hour, when let it dry 
away till merely moist. It is now done. Add salt 
to your taste, and serve hot. Eat it with milk or 
butter. 

To Fry Hominy. 

Have ready a clean, greased spider hot over the 
coals ; put in a small spoonful of nice, sweet lard 
or butter, let it melt; then put in about a quart and 
a half of boiled hominy; stir and mash it up well 
with the lard or butter. Let it fry awhile, stirring 
it about occasionally. When you find that the 
water is dried out of it, with your spoon mould it 
into a round form in the middle of the spider; 
let it so remain till your breakfast is ready, and 
then with a kaife loosen the hominy from the 
spider, and placing a plate or dish, bottom upward, 
on the hominy, turn it out, and serve hot. 

It will have a rich, brown coat or crust on it, 
and will make a handsome dish, and a very 
delicious one for breakfast; especially with well- 
seasoned sausages as an accompaniment. 

A little boy of the author's acquaintance, on 
being told by his pious mother that all good gifts 
came from God, and that little children should 
always pray to their Father in heaven for every 
good and desirable gift, on one evening, while 
kneeling at his mother's knee, added this little im- 
promptu prayer to those dictated by her: "And, 
Lord, please to make mamma give Johnny for 
breakfast as much big hominy and sausage as 
ever he can eat." A little child is an excellent 
judge of good eating. 



232 VEGETABLES. 

A good handful of white hominy beans boiled 
with your hominy will improve it very much in 
flavor, and add to Hs consistency. 

Great Hominy No. 2« 

Boil your corn in ashes and water till the husks 
peel oft', then put it into a vessel of cold water, 
and rub oft* with the hands all the skins. Wash it 
in three or four waters, and then put it to soak all 
night. In the morning, rub out all the blackened 
hearts or sprouts, and boil in pure water, as in 
Great Ilominy No. 1. 

Small Hominy. 

Grind your corn in a coarse mill, wash the 
hominy in many waters, rubbing it with the hands 
till all the husks are oflf, then boil as you would 
rice, though a much longer time is required. It 
may be boiled for breakfast, if washed overnight. 

Small hominy, cold, is also good fried; in the 
same way as the great hominy. 

Very good small hominy may be taken from 
coarsely ground meal. Sift out all the fine meal 
for bread, and wash what remains in the sieve. 
When the husk is removed, a very fine hominy 
will be found to remain. 



Scolloped Tomatoes* 

Scald and peel full ripe tomatoes, lay them 
whole in a baking- dish, with alternate layers of 
bread, butter, pepper, salt, and a veri/ Utile mustard. 
Cover them with bread-crumbs and butter, then bake 
them brown. Some persons like sugar with them. 



VEGETABLES. 28S 

Sliced Tomatoes. 

Choose full ripe, large tomatoes; with a sharp 
knife peel oft* the skin, then slice them thin, season 
them with salt, pepper, and mustard, if you like it, 
and cover them with sharp vinegar. 

Tomatoes dressed in this way, with cold veal cut 
up in small pieces, and with the addition of sweet 
oil and hard-boiled eggs, make an agreeable sub- 
stitute for lobster. 

stewed Tomatoes. 

Scald them with boiling water, slip off the skins, 
take out the pithy parts, and add a third of their 
quantity in bread-crumbs ; then butter, pepper, and 
salt as you like. Some use sugar also. Stew your 
tomatoes to a thick pulp, and just before you serve 
them add a cup of rich, sweet cream. 

Celery. 

I have never seen a good dish of cooked celery, 
except as seasoning for other dishes. Celery in its 
native beauty, coolness, crispness, and delicious 
taste, is only eaten in perfection. In a handsome 
cut-glass goblet, in the center of the dinner-table, it 
is most attractive. I cannot give directions for 
such a barbarism as cooked celery. 

The only form in which I can tolerate celery 
compounded is in chicken salad. This is a royal 
dish, indeed, when properly made. 

Green Peas 

Should be boiled in as little water as possible, and 
as soon as soft the top of the stewpan should be 

20* 



284 VEGETABLES. 

taken off, that the water remainiog should be Buf- 
fered to evaporate before the peas are taken out. 
In this way all the sweetness is retained. 

Serve them as hot as possible, with butter and 
sweet cream, with a little salt and pepper. 

Fresh beans and peas of all sorts should be 
boiled in the same way. 

Dry beans and peas should be soaked overnight, 
and so should dried young corn. These should be 
boiled in much more water, and when soft the 
water should be allowed nearly to evaporate, so 
that the sweetness of the vegetables may be pre- 
served. These also should be well buttered. 

Green Com. 

Boil it on the cobs, and cut it off before serving. 
Cover with butter, and add a little salt and pepper. 

Or, you may cut it off the cobs, and stew it with 
cream, butter, pepper, and salt. 

Green corn is excellent roasted on the cob, and 
eaten with butter. 

Green Corn Pie* 

One quart of grated or scraped green corn, the 
yelks of three eggs, and a heaping spoonful of but- 
ter, a little salt, and red pepper, all mixed well 
together; to this add a cup of tomato juice, strained 
through a sieve. Line a deep baking-dish with the 
mixture,have readytwo nicely stewed chickens, with 
plenty of butter, fill the dish with the chickens and 
thin gravy, then cover them with what remains of 
the corn batter. Bake in a moderate oven till well 
done. 



VEGETABLES. 285 

To Fry Green Com. 

Melt a good spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, 
and cut your corn off the cobs ; when the butter is 
quite hot, pour into it about a quart of the corn, 
seasoned with salt and pepper to your taste ; stir it 
about till you think it is done, then suffer it to re- 
main quiet till a crust is formed at the bottom, 
then loosen it with a knife, and turn it out on a 
suitable dish. 

Lettuce. 

Gather your lettuce early in the morning, keep 
it in cold water till dinner is ready, then, after 
trimming off all the outer leaves and the ends of 
those remaining, split the heads in half, or quarter 
them, if very large ; then lay them neatly in the 
salad-dish, and pour the dressing over them. 

Dressing for Lettuce, Slaw, Tomatoes, Lobster, Cucum- 
bers, Celery, etc* 

Take the yelks of two hard-boiled eggs, mash 
them fine in three tablespoonfuls of best olive oil, 
then add, gradually stirring all the while, two 
tal)lespoonful8 of best vinegar, two saltspoonfuls 
of salt, two mustardspoonfuls of mixed mustard, 
and red pepper at your discretion. 

This quantity will answer for one salad-dishful of 
lettuce, or other vegetables above mentioned ; not 
quite sufiicient for the same quantity of lobster. 
Add in this case one-third more. 



286 VEGETABLES. 

To take tlie Hasks off Grain* 

Two parts calcined soda, twelve parts water, 
one part caustic lime in three of water. To be 
boiled one hour and a half to two hours, and then 
twenty times its weight in water added. Seven 
and a half quarts of this liquid will suffice for two 
hundred pounds of grain. Let it remain twenty- 
four hours, and if the husks are not sufficiently 
loosened, suffer it to remain a few hours longer. 
You can rub off the husks with the hand, after 
which the grain should be soaked in clean water 
for a night, and the water changed in the morning. 
A.fter standing awhile you may boil your grain. 

Okra for Gambo. 

Dry them thoroughly in the sun, then grind 
them to a powder in a spice-mill, and keep them 
in a bottle well stopped. 

Chicken Salad. 

Roast or boil, till done and tender, three full- 
grown, fat fowls, and before cold, take off the skin, 
and remove all the flesh from the bones. 

Wait till the flesh is cold^ then, with a sharp knife, 
cut it into half-inch pieces ; do not mince it fine. 
Spread it in a wide dish, and strew over it a tea- 
spoonful of fine salt, then take the yelks of six 
hard-boiled eggs, and with a wooden spoon rub 
them into a smooth paste, with six spoonfuls of 
pure, sweet oil; add six tablespoonfuls of sharp 
vinegar, one of mustard, six saltspoonfuls of salt, 



VEGETABLES, 237 

and one of Cayenne pepper {ground fine). Mix all 
well together. 

Cut your celery into pieces, from an inch to 
half an inch in length, mix it with your cut up 
chicken in a large bowl ; and pour over them your 
dressing. 

If the salad is not to be immediately used, keep 
your celery in cold water till the time appointed. 
Keep the chicken and dressing in separate vessels 
also. 

To allow your celery to remain saturated with 
the dressing, even for an hour, will destroy its 
crispness, which is an essential quality of its 
excellence. 

To Boil Rice No. 1. 

Pick and wash a pint bowl of rice ; let it soak 
awhile ; this improves its whiteness. Now put it 
in your saucepan, with twice the quantity of water 
(two bowls); cover it, and let it boil. When it 
begins to settle down, and a white, milky water 
appears above it, sprinkle in a little fine salt; take 
oiF the cover, and allow your rice to become en- 
tirely dry. Do not put a spoon into it. When it 
is dry, it is done. 

Wet a bowl with cold water, throw it out, put 
your rice in it, with a spoon pack it down smoothly, 
and, after it stands for a moment, turn it out on a 
dish for the table. 

This is the way rice is prepared in Barbadoes. 



1 



288 VEGETABLES. 

The Carolina way to Boil Rice. 

Let the rice boil as in No. 1, till the water be- 
comes milky, then pour off the water; leave the 
rice uncovered till perfectly dry. 

The rice-water thus obtained will make excel- 
lent starch, and it is good to wet up your flour for 
bread instead of simple water. 

Boiled Rice No. 2. 

One bowl of rice, well picked and washed, boiled 
in one bowl of water. Let all the water boil out ; 
draw it out with a fork to open the grains ; a little 
salt should be dropped in while it is boiling. 

Boiled Rice and Milk. 

Boil as above, and when the water has evapo- 
rated, add a cup of rich milk; allow it to boil 
again till nearly dry, and put the rice in a form, 
from which turn it out on a dish. Eat it with 
butter or cream. 

Fried Rice. 

Make cold rice into round, flat cakes with the 
hand, cover them with a little flour, and fry them 
in lard or butter. 

Indian Mush. 

Put some water in a stewpan, let it boil, and 
stir in quickly as much sifted meal as will make 
your mush as thick as you wish. Let it remain on 
the fire till thoroughly done. 

The fire should be of coals, and not so hot as 
to scorch the mush. Stir it constantly till done. 



VEGETABLES. 239 

Indian Gruel. 

Sift Indian meal ; then while the husks are in 
the sieve pour over them cold water. It will look 
like milk. Put this on to boil. Let it boil well. 
Add a little fine salt. 

Gruel made of meal is coarse and unpalatable. 

stewed Mushrooms. 

Be careful to select the true mushrooms. Pick 
them clean, peel them, cut off the stems, and wash 
them gently ; then put them in a stewpan, with but- 
ter, pepper, salt, and a lilik water ; let them stew ten 
minutes, then add a cup of cream (sweet); let them 
stew a minute or two longer, and serve them hot. 
Some persons add a little white wine, but they are 
better without. 

Greens. 

Greens must be boiled with ham or pork. They 
are insipid and flat without. Butter does not seem 
to be congenial. Let them boil half an hour just 
before you take up your dinner. 

Tender sprouts from the cabbage-stalks, in the 
spring, mustard, or turnip-tops, are an acceptable 
adjunct to ham or pork, when other vegetables are 
scarce. 

Let them boil soft and tender, drain them, and 
serve them very hot. 

Rice Puffs. 

Beat up the whites of two eggs till very light, 
and stir them in a quart of boiled rice, with a little 



240 VEGETABLES. 

salt and a small spoonful of flour; then add half a 
cup of rich cream; beat the mixture well, and 
drop it by spoonfuls on a tin. Bake in a quick 
oven. Serve immediately, while hot. Or, fry 
them in lard. 

Cauliflowers. 

Boil them in milk and water; strain oft* all the 
milk and water, then serve your cauliflowers, weU 
covered with rich drawn butter. 

Broccoli should be dressed in the same manner. 

An hour is suflicient to boil either. 

Parsnips. 

Wash and scrape your parsnips well, boil them 
till tender, split them in half, lengthwise, and bake 
them in an earthen dish, well buttered. 

Or, mash them tine, mix them with a batter of 
eggs, milk, and a little flour, and fry them brown, 
by spoonfuls, dropped in boiling lard. 

Salsify or Vegetable Oysters. 

Scrape and wash your salsify very clean, then 
boil it till very tender. Mash it tine, then add 
eggs, salt, pepper, a little milk, flour, and butter. 
Beat it well ; drop small spoonfuls in boiling lard, 
and fry them brown. 

Or, after boiling, cut your salsify in pieces about 
the size of an oyster, and stew them in cream, 
seasoned with salt, pepper, a little mace, and 
onion. 



VEGETABLES, 241 

Turnips. 

Wash, peel, quarter, and boil them, an hour or 
more, till tender ; then take them out, mash them 
in a colander till very dry, then return them to the 
pot or stewpan, with a lump of butter, a cup of 
cream, salt, and pepper; let the stewpan remain 
near the fire till it is time to serve dinner. 



Egg Plant. 

^g'g plants may be dressed in three diflferent 
ways. The best is to slice them, with the skins 
peeled oft* and then to sprinkle each piece with 
salt, lay them one upon another in a dish, for an 
hour or more, till the bitter juice is drawn from 
them, then wash them, salt and pepper them; 
flour, and fry them brown. 

Another way is to boil them whole, till soft and 
done, then cut them in half; take out all the ^gg^ 
leaving only the shells. Mix with the ^gg^ butter, 
pepper, salt, bread-crumbs, a little chopped onion, 
and yelks of eggs ; return the mixture to the ^gg 
shells, "set them in an oven, and bake them brown. 

Or, you may mix the boiled insides of several 
vegetable eggs in the same way, and bake them in 
a common-sized earthen dish, covered with bread- 
crumbs. 

Onions. 

Use none but silver skins. Boil them in two suc- 
cessive waters, and lay them, when done, in a third, 
for ten minutes, before serving. Drain them dry, 
and butter them well. 

21 



242 VEQ ETA BLEB. 

Asparagus. 

Lay your asparagus together neatly, having the 
sprout ends the same way ; roll it in a clean towel 
or cloth, and lay it in boiling water, with a little 
salt; let it boil an hour, unroll your towel over a 
heated dish, with a slice of toast on the bottom ; 
lay your asparagus neatly on the toast, and pour 
over it a good cupful of drawn butter. Serve it hot. 

Beets. 

Wash your beets carefully. Do not break off 
the ends, or they will bleed, and become colorless. 
Boil them an hour and a half; take them out of 
the pot, and wash it clean, then slice your beets ; 
return them to the pot, with salt, pepper, a cup of 
rich drawn butter, and half a cup of vinegar* 
Serve them hot. 

Or, you may omit the dressing, save the vinegar : 
when they should be eaten cold. 

Squashes. 

Wash, quarter, and boil them till soft, then drain, 
and mash them in a colander. Return them to the 
vessel in which they were boiled, with cream, but- 
ter, pepper, and salt. Stir them occasionally over 
a few dull coals till ready to serve. 

Spinach. 

Have ready a pot or saucepan of boiling water. 
First poach half a dozen eggs in the water ; when 
done, take them out, and put in your spinach; let 



VEOETABLES. 243 

it boil gently for fifteen minutes, then take it up in 
a colander, press all the water out, sprinkle a little 
salt over it, lay on the poached eggs, and pour over 
the whole some rich drawn butter. Cover your 
dish, and serve the spinach very hot. 

Okras. 

Boil them simply in salt and water, say a tea- 
spoonful of salt to a pot of water. As soon as they 
are soft take them out, and drain them well. Lay 
them in a deep dish, with melted butter. 

West India way. 

Or, boil a gallon of okras till dissolved into a 
thick mucilage, add a quarter of a pound of butter, 
pepper, salt, some small, thin slices of bVoiled ham; 
stir it well over the fire, then serve it hot, with 
mush balls. 

Artichokes* 

Boil them two hours in water, with a little salt, 
and serve them entire, burs and all. Eat them with 
butter, after dinner, before the dessert comes on. 

Jemsalem Artichokes 

May be prepared as Irish potatoes, boiled and 
mashed, with butter, pepper, salt, and an Qgg^ 
then browned in a baking-dish, or fried in balls. 

Cabbage. 

Boil your cabbage till tender, with a little salt in 
the water, then take it up in a colander, drain it 
well, place it nicely in a dish, and cover it with 
drawn or melted butter. 



244 VEGETABLES, 

Cold Slaw. 

Shave up a crisp, bleached cabbage very fine, 
and dress it as lettuce, with oil, pepper, salt, mus- 
tard, eggs, and vinegar. (See Dressing for Lettuce.) 

Cucumbers 

Should be gathered when young and tender. Do 
not wait till they turn white or yellow. The seeds 
are then enlarged, and the vegetable unfit for use. 
Be sure that they are still of a deep-green color. 

Quite early in the morning put them in cold 
water, keep them thus till just before your dinner 
is dished; then peel oflf ^e green skin carefully, 
and slice them thin. Dress them with salt, pepper, 
mustard, and vinegar, or with the foregoing re- 
ceipt for dressing lettuce. 

Carrots. 

Peel them, and boil them till quite tender, and 
serve them hot, with melted butter. 

Or, mash them fine, and add butter, pepper, and 
salt, then brown them in a baking-dish. Grated 
carrots make a fine coloring for soups. 

Snap Beans. 

Choose those half-grown, take oft' the strings care- 
fully, split them down the middle, and boil them 
till tender. Serve with drawn butter, or rich, 
sweet cream, pepper, and salt. 



VEGETABLES. 245 

Com Padding. 

Cut quite young corn off the cobs till you have 
three pints ; add to this three eggs, two spoonfuls 
of fresh butter, a spoonful of sifted Indian meal, a 
cup of milk, and salt and pepper as much as you 
like. Pour this mixture in a baking-dish, and 
bake it an hour. Serve it very hot. 

Com Fritters 

Are made exactly as corn pudding, but with flour 
instead of meal, and rather more milk, say suf- 
ficient to make the batter as thin as for fritters 
commonly. Fry them in boiling lard. 

Chicken Padding. 

Stew two young chickens, cut them in pieces, 
and add them to the foregoing corn pudding. 



ai* 



246 PICKLING. 



FIOELINa. 

To Pickle Cacambers. 

Gather half-growD cucumbers every day, aud 
put them in salt and water till you have sufficient 
to fill a large stone jar, then take a bell-metal pre- 
serving-kettle and cover the bottom with vine or 
mustard leaves. Wash your cucumbers (having 
soaked them the previous twenty-four hours in 
cold water), lay in a portion of them on the leaves, 
then cover them with more leaves, another layer 
of cucumbers, leaves again, and cucumbers, till 
the kettle is nearly full ; let the last layer be leaves. 
Fill the kettle with cold water, set it over a slow 
fire to steam till the cucumbers are green. Just 
before you take them out increase the heat, and 
let the cucumbers simmer a little while. Take 
them out and lay them in fresh hot water for fifteen 
minutes, and then put them in the stone jar, with 
alternate layers of spices, mustard, horseradish, 
and celery seed ; sliced onion, if you like, may be 
added. Then fill up your jar with strong vinegar, 
sweetened slightly with brown sugar. Cover the 
whole with three teaspoonfuls of pure sweet oil. 
Keep your pickles covered close. 

Pickled Cabbage. 

Take well-headed, white cabbages, cut them in 
quarters, sprinkle them with fine salt, and lay them 
in a wooden vessel for two days. Have ready a 
quantity of sliced onions (white), also mixed spices. 



PICKLING. 247 

then fill a stone jar nearly full with alternate layers 
of cabbage, onions, and spices. Shake off a portion 
of the salt before laying the cabbage in the jar ; then 
fill up the jar with strong vinegar, boiling hot, covered 
with pokeberry juice. One pint of pokeberry juice 
will color a gallon of vinegar. In three days the 
pickle will be ready for use. 

Sliced Green Tomato Pickle. 

Take one peck of green tomatoes, slice them, 
and lay them in a wooden vessel, with alternate 
layers of fine salt. Let them so remain three days, 
then take them out of the salt, and wash them in 
clean water. Then mix together one ounce of black 
mustard seed, one ounce of white mustard seed, 
one ounce of celery seed, one ounce of mixed spices, 
six red pepper pods, cut up, and a box of ground 
mustard. Put the tomatoes in a preserving-kettle, 
in alternate layers, with the above mixture. Cover 
the whole with strong vinegar, and boil fifteen 
minutes. 

To Pickle Tomatoes. 

Put ripe tomatoes in whisky, and when you wish 
a jar of them pickled, take them out, wash them in 
clean water, scald them in strong vinegar, with 
spices, mustard, pepper, and salt, then put them in 
your jar, and cover them close. 

Tomato Marmalade. 

Take a peck of fine, large, ripe tomatoes, free 
from blemishes, wash them, free them of the stems, 
and boil them in their own juice till soft, then 



248 PICKLING, 

strain them through a hair sieve ; retarn them to 
the kettle, with salt, pepper, sugar, and spices to 
your taste ; stew them till very thick. Put them 
away in pint earthen jars, in a dry place. 

Mushroom Catsup. 

Gather fresh mushrooms (take care they are not 
worm-eaten), put them in a covered stewpan, with- 
out water, and stew them over a very slow fire, 
then take them out and strain them through a 
thick cloth or towel. To every pint of the liquor 
add a teaspoonful of salt, one of ground mace, one 
of garlic, one of red pepper, and then return it to 
the stewpan (washed out clean), and let it boil till 
reduced one-half or more. Bottle it with a tea- 
spoonful of sweet oil at the top. Cork it well. 

Yellow Pickles. 

To make yellow pickle of cabbages and aspara- 
gus, you must put them in strong, boiling salt and 
water, and allow them to remain till the water is 
cold, then take them out and lay them in the sun 
for two days. 

Cucumbers and young corn are to be kept in 
salt water for two weeks, then laid in cold, fresh 
water for three hours. Scald them, and if green, 
lay them in the sun two days. Then take 

One pint of black mustard seed. 

Four ounces of ginger. 

Three ounces of black pepper. 

Three ounces of allspice. 

One ounce of cloves. 



PICKLING. 249 

Odo ounce of mace. 

Two and a half ounces of turmeric. 

Two ounces of celery seed. 

All these to be powdered fine and added to two 
gallons of best vinegar, with a double-handful of 
scraped horseradish,* four lemons, sliced, and a 
pound and a half of brown sugar, and one handful 
of garlic. 

Put your pickles in a stone jar, and cover them 
well with the prepared vinegar. Keep them from 
the air securely. 

Peach Mangoes* 

Take large free-stone peaches, split them on one 
side, and take out the stone, then make a stuffing 
of horseradish, mustard seed, celery seed, mace, 
onions or garlic, a sprinkle of salt; moisten all 
these with sweet oil. Fill your peaches, tie them 
around with a strong flax thread, and fill a stone 
jar, then pour over them strong vinegar, with 
sugar, as much as you like. 

Onions, peppers, beans, peaches, young corn, 
cauliflowers, broccoli, and, indeed, any vegetable 
usually pickled, may be put up with the same seas- 
oning. There need be no separate receipts for them. 

Damson Pickles No. 1. 

Take one pound of damsons, one pound of sugar, 
half pint of best vinegar. Put the damsons into a 
stone jar, boil the sugar and vinegar, and pour over 

^—^^ MMi ■ ■ I ■ ^^^^^^^^mm^^ m m »■ ■ i ■ ■ »■■■ ■ i ■ i»^ i ■ ■ ■ ^|^ ■ ■■ — 

* Let your horseradish lie in the sun for a few hours before 
being added to the vinegar. 



250 PICKUNO, 

the fruit each morning for six succesBive mornings; 
on the seventh, pour the whole into a preserving- 
kettle ; add mace, cloves, and cinnamon to your 
taste, and boil twenty minutes. They will be fit 
for use as soon as cold. 

Sweet Pickled Peaches. 

To six pounds of peaches put three pounds of 
sugar and one pint of vinegar. Mace, allspice, cin- 
namon, each a spoonful, and six cloves, to be 
beaten, tied up in a muslin bag, and dropped in the 
pickled peaches while boiling. Boil quite thick, 
stirring constantly. 

To Pickle Peaches No. 1. 

Wash cling-stone peaches well in cold water, put 
them in a stone jar, then scald (not boil) strong 
vinegar sufficient to cover the peaches, add a little 
loaf-sugar, just enough to give a slightly sweet 
taste, pour in the vinegar, and cover up close from 
the air. 

Pickled Damsons No. 2. 

To every pound of fruit add one pound of sugar 
and half a pint of strong vinegar ; cloves, mace, 
cinnamon, each one teaspoonful. Prepare them as 
in plain preserved damsons. 

To Pickle Walnuts. 

Gather the walnuts while tender. Try them by 
running a needle through one. If it goes through 
easily, your walnuts are in a proper state for pick- 
ling. 

Boil them in salt and water for fifteen minutes, 



PICKLING. 261 

then take them out, and put them in jars, with 
garlic, a few blades of mace, a little allspice, cloves, 
and cinnamon, pounded. Pour over the walnuts 
strong vinegar, and cork and seal them up well 
for twelve months, when they will be fit for use. 

Walnut Catsnp. 

Pound your walnuts in a marble mortar, put 
them in a preserving-kettle, cover them with water, 
and let them simmer for two hours, then strain off 
the liquor, and to every pint add a teaspoonful of 
garlic, mace, and cloves. Boil it down to less than 
half the quantity, fill your bottles half full, and 
finish with strong vinegar. Bottle tight. It is 
ready for use at once. 

staffing for Mangoes or Peppers. 

Chop up cabbage as you would for slaw, and 
season it with equal portions of mace, allspice, 
cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, white mustard, and 
celery seed ; then moisten these ingredients with a 
cup of sweet oil ; add garlic or onion, if you like. 

* To Pickle Peaches No. 2. 

Wash cling-stone peaches, and stick them full 
of cloves, put them in a stone jar, boil strong vine- 
gar, with suflBLcient sugar to give it a sweet taste, 
and pour it boiling hot over the peaches. It should 
be more than sufficient to cover them. Close the 
jar well from the air. 

You may omit the cloves, and add mace to the 
boiling vinegar instead. 



252 PICKLING. 

Hodge-podge. 

Bhred up greeu tomatoes with a few pods of 
green peppers ; boil them in weak salt and water 
until tender; then take them up with a perforated 
skimmer; drain them as dry as possible. 

Shred some onions fine, with ground mustard, 
mustard seed, and any kind of spices you prefer; 
add one cup of sugar. 

Fill up a jar three-fourths with the tomatoes ; 
add vinegar till it is full; cover close, and set your 
jar away. Itn?v^ill be fit for use in a few days. 

Chow-Chow No. 1. 

Shred up cabbage fine, put it in a jar with salt 
water, let it stand two days, then put it in a dry 
cloth, and wring it as dry as possible ; mix in it 
beaten cinnamon, celery seed, ground mustard 
seed, whole onions, and a little mace; fill your 
jar three-fourths, and cover with strong vinegar. 
Cover close from the air. 

No. 2. 

Some persons add to their chow-cho^ young 
cucumbers, beans, nasturtiums, or radish pods. 

X 

Tomato Catsup So. 1. 

Take a gallon of ripe tomatoes, cut a slit in each, 
put them in a kettle, and boil half an hour, then 
take them out, and press them through a sieve; 
put the juice into a kettle, with half an ounce of 
pounded mace, a few cloves, a teaspoonful of black 



PICKLING, 253 

and Cayenne pepper, mixed, four tablespoonfuls 
of ground mustard, mixed together, and boil slowly 
three hours ; then take it out, and let it stand till 
next day, then stir in half a pint of best vinegar, 
and bottle securely. 

Tomato Catsap No«2« 

Split the tomatoes, and boil them till quite done, 
stirring them frequently to prevent burning; strain 
them through a colander first, and then a hair 
sieve, rubbing them with a spoon, to get as much 
of the pulp as possible. To a half gallon of the 
strained pulp add four tablespoonfuls (level) of salt, 
four tablespoonfuls of black pepper, three table- 
spoonfuls of mustard, one teaspoonful (level) of 
cloves, one teaspoonful of mace, one teaspoonful 
of red pepper, one quart of vinegar, one clove of 
garlic. Boil till you think it is done, and when 
taken from the fire, set it aside till the next day ; 
and should there be any watery substance on the 
top; boil till it entirely disappears. Skim while 
boiling. The pepper and spices must be sifted 
through a very fine sieve. 

Tomato Catsap No. 3. 

Take one gallon of ripe tomatoes, free from 
blemish, stew them till quite soft, then pass them 
through a sieve. To the liquor add — 

One pint of vinegar. 

Four pods of Cayenne pepper. 

Three spoonfuls of ground black pepper. 

Three spoonfuls of salt. 

22 



254 PICKLING. 

One ounce of spice (such as you like). 

Five ounces of mustard seed. 

Boil, stirring till done, and bottle closely. 

Chow-Chow No. 2. 

Four pounds of cabbage, cut fine, four pounds 
of brown sugar, twenty pods of green pepper, cut 
fine, one pound of white mustard seed, two table- 
spoonfuls of salt, two tablespoonfuls of grated 
horseradish. Put all, well mixed, in a jar, and 
fill up with strong cider vinegar. 

Cacamber Catsmp. 

Gather the cucumbers the day before you make 
the catsup, then peel and grate them, pour oflE* all 
the water and throw it away; grate enough of 
white onions to flavor it, and then add black and 
Cayenne pepper, and salt; stir all well together, 
fill the bottles half full of the mixture, then fill 
them up with good cider vinegar. Some chop the 
cucumbers and onions, and others add mustard. 

Raspberry Vinegar. 

• 

Gather the raspberries in a bowl, and cover them 
with strong cider vinegar. Let them stand two 
days, adding fresh fruit, if you have it, then press 
and strain it, and to every pint of juice add a 
pound of loaf sugar. Boil it fifteen minutes, 
skim it well, and when perfectly cold bottle it, 
and keep in a cool place. This, with water, is a 
very refreshing drink in summer. 



PASTRY. 255 

PASTRY. 

Pastry should be made up with cold water, — in 
summer, the coldest you can get ; and it should be 
made in a cool place. It should be mixed with a 
knife-blade, and touched as little as possible with 
the hands. 

It should be baked in a moderately heated oven, 
so that when done it is as light colored as possible ; 
but it should be thoroughly done. 

Puff Paste No. 1. 

For one pound of flour weigh one pound of fresh 
butter, well washed, and dried in a clean towel. 
Take out one teaspoonful of butter and replace it 
with one of sweet lard. Now wet up your flour 
with cold water, and one spoonful of butter, into a 
moderately stiff dough; roll it out on a marble 
slab or board into a thin sheet, cover it with butter, 
and fold it up, then roll it out again, and fold as 
before seven more times, each time spreading the 
sheet of dough with butter, sprinkling it every 
time with a little flour from the sieve. Now roll 
up your sheet of dough, and it is ready to use. 
Take care, in covering your plates with this paste, 
never to disturb the folds, or mash them with the 
hand ; if you do, they cannot blow apart, and dis- 
play your superior skill in pastry makings 

Puff Paste No. 2. 

For one pound of flour weigh three-fourths of a 
pound of butter or lard. Mix it as in No. 1 ; roll 
out, and fold three times. 



1 



256 PASTRY. 

Potato Paste. 

Peel eight large Irish potatoes, and boil them ; 
when soft, pour oft' the water, and mash them fine, 
pass them through a colander, and moisten them 
with a spoonful of butter or lard, and a pint of 
milk or water; make them into a dough, with as 
much flour as will enable you to roll it out without 
sticking to the board. 

This is an excellent paste for dumplings or turn- 
overs for any kind of fruit. 

Simple Apple Pies No. 1. 

Pare your apples, and stew them to a pulp, pass 
them through a colander, sweeten, and spice them 
to your taste, and bake them in puft* paste. A cup 
of sweet cream will improve these pies. 

Sliced Apple Pies No. 2. 

Pare and slice your apples, put them in plates 
covered with puff paste, with alternate layers of 
sugar, butter, and a sprinkle of finely ground cin- 
namon, or lemon if you prefer it; then pour a 
spoonful of water on, and cover the pies with thin 
sheets of crust. Bake them rather longer than 
apple pies No. 1, as the apples have not before been 
cooked. There should be more fire at the bottom 
than at the top, or your crust will be too dark 
when the apples are done. 

Sliced Potato Pies. 

Boil sweet potatoes till slightly done ; slice them, 
and fill a deep plate with alternate layers of sliced 



PASTRY. 257 

potatoes, butter, sugar, spices, and brandy, say 
about one wineglass of brandy to a large pie ; 
sugar and butter as you like. Cover your pie 
with puff paste, and bake it. 

It should be served hot. It is a good substitute 
for minced pie. 

Minced Pies. 

One pound of suet, chopped fine. 

One pound of raisins, chopped fine. 

One pound of citron, chopped fine. 

One pound of currants, pounded slightly. 

One pound of beef tongue, chopped fine. 

One pound of minced apples.^ 

Half ounce of mace. 

Half ounce of allspice. 

Cloves. 

Cinnamon. 

Nutmeg, pounded. 

One pint of brandy. 

One pint of wine. 

If you wish to make ajar full of minced meat to 
keep for any time, leave out the wine and chopped 
apples ; add these when you make your pies, with 
a full spoonful of the juice from brandy peaches, if 
you have them, to each pie, and grated lemon- 
peel. Bake in puff paste. Serve hot. 

Tarts. 

When prepared fruits of any kind are baked in 
small pans, without an upper crust, they are called 
tarts. 

Tarts may be ornamented after being baked, by 

22* 



t 



258 PASTRY. 

cutting out thin leaves of paste, baking them on a 
plate or tin sheet, and then, when the tart is cold, 
arranging them in the center, or in a wreath on 
the fruit. 

Cut the leaves with a short stem that may enter 
into the tart, and so form a highly-relieved flower. 

Some persons cut long strips of thin paste with 
a jagging-iron, and lay them across the tart before 
baking it. 

Pnffis. 

Cover little patty-pans with puff paste, bake 
them white, and fill them when cold with pre- 
serves. 

Every kind of fruit may be made into pies or 
tarts, with sugar to sweeten them as you like. 
There need be no directions for each separately. 
Pies always have an upper crust. 



^ 

^ 



PUDDING SAUCES. 259 



PUDDING 8AU0E8. 

No.l. 

Cream half a pound of fresh butter with three- 
fourths of a pound of sugar ; add a glass of white 
wine, half a nutmeg, and the rind and juice of a 
lemon ; then melt your sauce in a porcelain stew- 
pan over a slow fire. 

This should be done by your cook while the 
family are at dinner, as the sauce will need constant 
stirring. If this action is suspended, the butter will 
separate from the sauce, and become oil at the sur- 
face. If taken from the fire, it will become stiff 
and hard. 

Another. — Creatn half a pound of butter with 
three-fourths of a pound of sugar; add to this a 
cup of sweet, rich cream, a glass of wine, a spoon- 
ful of brandy. Season with spice or lemon to your 
taste. 

Cream Sauce* 

Whip rich cream to a syllabub, with sugar, wine, 
and the juice of a lemon or orange. 

Another. — Boil one pound of sugar in a cup of 
water till it becomes a thick syrup, then add a 
quarter of a pound of butter, a glass of wine, the 
juice and rind of a lemon, half a grated nutmeg. 



260 PUDDINGS. 



PUDDIHaS. 

Boiling PnddiDgs. 

Havb your water boiling when your pudding is 
put in ; have a plate in the bottom of the pot to 
prevent burning your bag, or even if you use a 
tin boiler, it is best to have the plate. Keep your 
pot constantly boiling the number of hours desig- 
nated, or your pudding may not be done in due 
time ; besides, its lightness will be less if the boiling 
is suffered to subside at intervals. 

Plum Padding No. !• 

One dozen of eggs. 

One quart of new milk. 

One pound of flour, with a pound of beef suet 
rubbed into it. 

Two pounds of raisins, stoned and chopped. 

Two pounds currants, washed and picked. 

One pound citron, cut up fine. 

Two lemons, the rinds grated into the juice. 

After all being thoroughly mixed, to be tied up 
tightly in a linen bag, which has been previously 
dipped in boiling water and rubbed with flour. 

The water should be boiling when the pudding 
is put in, and kept boiling till it is removed to the 
dish in which it is to go to the table. Four hours 
should be allowed it to boil. 



PUDDINGS, 261 

Plum Padding No. 2. 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound of butter. 

One pound of flour. 

One dozen eggs. 

Cream your butter and sugar together; beat 
your eggs lightly, add them to the sugar and but- 
ter, gradually, with the flour, as in pound cake. 
Then add— 

Two pounds of stoned and chopped raisins. 

One pound of cut citron. 

One pound preserved orange or lemon, chopped. 

Quarter ounce of mace. 

Quarter ounce of cinnamon ; the same of cloves 
and nutmeg. 

Boil five hours, and serve with boiled sauce, as 
for plum pudding No. 1. 

Plum Padding No. 3. 

Scald a pound of light bread with one quart of 
boiling milk; let it swell, then mash it fine with a 
wooden spoon. Add to this eight eggs, half a 
pound of butter, one pound of raisins, one pound 
of currants, one pound of citron, one pound of 
preserved plums or cherries. To be boiled three 
hours. 

To be served with either of the foregoing sauces. 

Rice Padding No. 1. 

One teacupful of rice flour. 
One dozen of fresh eggs. 
One quart of milk. 



262 PUDDmQS. 

Beat all well together, and boil in a linen bag, 
prepared as before directed. Two hours will be 
sufficient. Serve with hot boiled sauce. 

Rice Padding No. 2. 

Beat six eggs with six tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
then add, gradually, two teacupfuls of boiled rice, 
and a spoonful of butter, with a little orange or 
lemon peel. One quart of milk added last. 

Pour all in a baking-dish, and when baked serve 
hot. 

Rice Padding No. 3. 

Wash and pick a pint of rice, put it in soak for 
an hour; stone and chop a cupful of raisins, put 
the rice, mingled with the chopped raisins, in a 
boiling-cloth, tying it so as to leave room for the 
rice to swell. At first you will be compelled to 
guess at it, the second time you will know how 
much space to allow. 

Turn your pudding out on a dish to serve. Eat 
with cream and wine sauce. 

Or, you may boil rice and milk as in boiled rice 
No. 3, with the cup of chopped raisins in it. 

Turn it out from a form. 

Boiled Indian Padding. 

One and a half quarts of sifted Indian meal, with 
a large spoonful of butter rubbed into it, six eggs, 
a quart of milk, and a teaspoonful of salt. Beat 
all well together, and boil in a scalded and floured 
bag, as before mentioned, three hours. 



PUDDINGS. 263 

Boiled molasses or white sugar and lemon-juice 
will serve as a sauce. 

Plain Boiled Padding* 

One dozen eggs. 

One quart milk. 

One teacupful of flour. 

Beat all well together; tie in a scalded and 
floured bag, and boil as directed in the receipt for 
plum pudding, except that two hours will be suf- 
ficient to boil it in. 

Sauce. — Butter, sugar, wine, and nutmeg, beaten 
well together, make the best sauce for this pud- 
ding. 

plain Baked Pudding. 

One quart of milk. 
Eight eggs. 
A pint of flour. 

A teaspoonful of butter, and a little salt. 
Beat the eggs well,^ alone, and then gradually 
add the flour and milk. 

Sauce as for plain boiled pudding. 

Preserve Pudding. 

One cup of flour. 
One cup of butter. 
One cup of milk. 
Two cups of sugar. 
Four eggs. 

One cup and a half of preserves of any kind, if 
you choose several kinds. 
Sauce as above. 



264 PUDDINGS, 

Sanderlaud Padding* 

Six eggs, three tablespoonfuls of flour, one pint 
of milk, warmed, and a spoonful of butter melted 
in it; a little salt. Beat all well together. Bake 
in a quick oven. 

Fosset Padding. 

Eight eggs, half a pound of sugar, one quart 
of milk, one cup of flour; leave out four whites 
of the eggs. While the pudding is baking, beat 
the four whites of eggs to a stiflf* froth, with six 
spoonfuls of sugar (white sugar). Pour this on 
the pudding when done, and let it brown. Eat it 
with butter. 

Henrietta Padding. 

Beat six eggs very light, sift into them a pound 
of loaf sugar, and a light pound of flour ; add a 
glass of brandy, and half a grated nutmeg. When 
well beaten together add a pint of cream. Pour it 
into a deep baking-dish and bake it. When done, 
sift sugar over it to serve. Eat it with butter. 

Baked Indian Pudding. 

Boil a quart of milk, mix in it two gills and a 
half of corn meal, very smoothly, seven eggs, a gill 
of molasses, and a small piece of butter. Bake it 
two hours. 

Apple Pudding. 

To three pints of stewed apples (passed through 
a sieve), half pound of butter, half pound of sugar, 
the yelks of ten eggs, and half a cup of rich, sweet 
cream. To be baked in puflf* paste. 



PUDDINGS. 265 

Tapioca Pndding. 

Dissolve a teacupful of tapioca in a quart of 
water overnight. In the morning take it out of 
the water, and boil it in a quart of milk, with two 
teacupfuls of sugar. 

Pare and core eight apples, filling the opening 
with a lump of sugar and a small piece of cinna- 
mon; then put them in a baking-dish, and pour 
the tapioca over them. Bake them brown. Let 
them get cold before serving. Eat them with 
wine or milk, as you like. 

Edgecombe Pndding. 

Boil two tablespoonfuls of corn-starch in two 
cups of new milk. When cold, add the yelks of 
six eggs, half pound of sugar, a spoonful of butter, 
and the juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon. 
Pour it in puft* paste, and cover it with icing. 
Bake in a moderate oven. 

Eve's Pndding. 

Chop six large apples very fine, grate six ounces 
of stale bread, add six ounces of brown sugar, six 
ounces of currants, washed, picked, and sprinkled 
with flour. Mix all well together with six ounces 
of butter, and two tablespoonfuls of flour ; beat 
six eggs very light, add these with a teaspoonful 
of cinnamon and half a nutmeg, grated. Boil for 
three hours. 

To be eaten with cream sauce. 

23 



266 PUDDINGS. 

Bread Pudding. 

Half pound of stale bread, soaked in milk (one 
pint). 

Half pound of sugar, beaten with six eggs. 

Quarter pound of butter. 

Half pound of raisins; mace or nutmeg. 

Boil it as before directed, and eat it with butter, 
sugar, and wine, well creamed together, with nut- 
meg or lemon-peel. 

The same pudding is good baked, with the addi- 
tion of a cup of cream. 

Faff Pudding. 

Six eggs, six tablespoonfuls of flour, one quart 
of milk, two teaspoonfuls of yeast-powder. Bake 
quickly. Sauce as above. 

Henderson Pudding. 

Five eggs. 

Two cups of sugar. 

One cup and a half of butter. 

One cup of cream. 

Two cups of flour, with a teaspoonful of soda. 

Beat all well together, and, just before pouring 
into the pudding-bag, add two teaspoonfuls of 
cream of tartar, or three of strong vinegar. To 
be eaten with cream sauce. 

Cream Sauce. — Three-fourths of a pound of sugar, 
half as much butter, stirred together till very light, 
then put over the fire and melted, with a glass of 
Madeira wine, a cup of cream, and a few drops 
of essence of lemon. 



PUDDINGS. 267 

Confederate Pudding* 

One cup of Indian-meal mush. 

One cup of sugar, and one of cream. 

Four eggs, well beaten. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One glass of wine, with cinnamon. 

All to be well beaten together, and poured into 
crusts, which have been covered with apple jelly. 
Bake in a moderate oven. 

Croatan Pudding* 

One pound of boiled small hominy. 
Six eggs. 

Six spoonfuls of sugar. 
One spoonful of butter. 
One-fourth of a nutmeg, and a glass of wine. 
Beat all well together, and bake in plates covered 
with puflt' paste. 

Sweet Potato Pudding. 

One pound of boiled and mashed potatoes. 

One pound of butter. 

One pound of sugar. 

Nine eggs. 

Nutmeg, cinnamon, or lemon. 

Stir the butter into the potatoes while warm, 
then add the sugar and yelks of the eggs ; beat 
the whites to a stiff froth, add them with the wine 
and spice. Bake in puff paste as above. 



268 PUDDINGS, 

Almond Pudding. 

Half pound of blanched almonds, pounded with 
rose-water. 

One pint of rich, sweet cream. 

Half pound of fresh butter. 

Half pound of white sugar. 

Two large Naples biscuits, grated, and the yelks 
of five eggs. 

Mix, and beat all well together, and bake in 
puiF paste. 

Neapolitan Pudding. 

Take one cup of mush, and while hot stir into 
it a good spoonful of butter and one cup of sugar. 
Beat four eggs very lightly, and add them, with 
half a nutmeg, and the rind and juice of a lemon. 
Beat all well together, and bake in puflF paste, with 
a layer of jelly at the bottom of the pudding. 

Sponge Cake Pudding. 

Make a sponge cake after receipt in this book, 
and boil in a tin pudding-case. 

The water should be boiling hard when the 
pudding is put in, and should boil steadily at least 
two hours. The boiler should be well covered. 

Turn out your pudding on a dish, serve it hot, 
and eat with a rich, boiled sauce of sugar, butter, 
wine, lemon-peel and juice. 

Boiled Molasses Pudding* 

One cup of butter. 
One cup of molasses. 



PUDDTN08. 269 

One cup and a half of milk. 

Five cups of flour. 

Spices to your taste; one teaspoonful of soda, 
and two tablespoonfuls of sharp vinegar, or the 
juice of a lemon. 

Boil it five hourtf in a tin mould. Turn it out 
on a dish, and serve with boiled sauce. Raisins or 
currants improve this pudding. 

Boiled Cherry Pudding. 

Rub a light pound of butter into a po.und of 
flour, add three-fourths of a pound of preserved 
cherries, and three-fourths of a pound of chopped 
and stoned raisins ; then beat six eggs very light, 
and mix them gradu?.lly. 

Put this pudding in a form or cloth, at nine 
o'clock, and boil it till two ; or at ten, if you dine 
at three. 

This is an exceedingly nice pudding. Sauce as 
for plum pudding. 

Orange Pudding* 

One dozen and a half of eggs (six whites left 
out), three-fourths of a pound of butter, creamed 
with one pound of powdered white sugar, and the 
grated rind of four oranges, with ^their juice. 
Bake in puff paste. 

Baked Pudding for two. 

Three eggs. 

Six spoonfuls of flour. 

One pint of milk. 

23* 



270 PUDDINGS. 

Bake twenty luinuteB, and eat it with sauce of 
butter, sugar, wine, and nutmeg. 

Blackberry Pudding* 

Cream together half a pound of butter and a 
pound of brown sugar, add half a pound of flour, 
with four eggs, beaten till very light. "When well 
compounded, pour the batter into a greased bak- 
ing-dish, and lay a quart of ripe blackberries lightly 
on the top. Do not stir them in. 

Bake this pudding as you would a pound cake, 
and serve it with cream sauce, with wine. 

Citron Pudding* 

The yelks of nine eggs, ten ounces of white 
sugar, six ounces of butter, and two tablespoonfuls 
of Indian meal mush. 

Cut your citron in thin slices, lay it in puflF 
paste, fill up your baking-dish or plate with the 
pudding, and bake in a moderate oven. 

A very nice and cheap Potato Pudding. 

A pound of grated raw sweet potato. 
A spoonful of butter. 
Two spoonfuls of sugar. 
Two eggs. 

A cup of sweet milk. 
A little nutmeg or cinnamon. 
Mix all well together, and bake in an earthen 
baking-dish. Serve hot. 



PUDDINGS. 271 

Alice's Pudding. 

Plates covered with puff paste, spread with jelly, 
and then filled with pound cake batter, and baked 
in a slow oven a light brown. Sift .loaf-sugar over 
them before serving. 

Jelly Pudding. 

One cup of sugar. 
One cup of butter. 

One cup of eggs (measured), and well beaten to- 
gether. 

One cup of jelly. 

To be baked in crusts of puff paste. 

Dainty Pudding. 

Dissolve two rolls in one cup of sweet milk, add 
six eggs, well beaten, reserving two of the whites. 

One cup of butter. 

One cup of raisins. 

One cup of currants. 

One grated lemon, with the juice. 

After being baked, make an icing with the two 
reserve^ whites of eggs and half a pound of loaf- 
sugar ; pour it on the pudding while hot, and re- 
turn it to the oven for a few moments before serv- 
ing. Cream sauce. 

Lemon Pudding. 

Grate the rinds of six fresh lemons into the juice 
of three; beat the yelks of sixteen eggs and sixteen 
tablespoonfuls of sugar together, add alike quantity 
of melted butter, and four crackers, finely pounded. 



272 PUDDINGS. 

Now add the lemon-jaice and peel, and beat all 
well together till very light. Cover ydur baking- 
dishes with puff paste, till thera with the pudding 
batter, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Pumpkin Pudding. 

Grate half a pound of pumpkin, make a rich cus- 
tard of milk, eggs, and sugar; add the grated 
pumpkin, with spices to your taste. Bake in puff 
paste. A little butter improves it. 

A rich Ground Rice Pudding. 

Take five tablespoonfuls of ground rice, and boil 
it in a quart of new milk, with a grated nutmeg 
and a little cinnamon, stirring it all the while. 
When it is done, pour it in a pan, and stir into it a 
quarter of a pound of butter and half a pint of 
cream. When it is cold, add the yelks of eight 
eggs, and whites of four ; then add half a pound 
of clean currants, sprinkled with dry flour, and 
half a glass of rose-water ; the same of wine and 
brandy. 

Bake it in a deep dish, or boil it. Eat it with 
boiled sauce or cream sauce. 

Barbadoes Bread Pudding. 

Eight eggs and eight spoonfuls of sugar, beaten 
well together; after which add, gradually, one 
quart of milk. Pour all in a baking-dish, then 
butter three thin slices of bread, with the crusts 
off, lay them into the baking-pan till wet through 
with the eggs and milk. Turn the buttered sides 



PUDDINGS, 273 

of the slices up, and bake in a quick oven. When 
firmly set in the pan it is done. Serve hot. 

Apple Padding. 

Beat one spoonful of butter, with four eggs, and 
half a pound of grated apple ; add to this half a 
pound of sugar; spice and lemon to your taste. 
Bake in puft' paste, as lemon pudding. 

Cocoanut Pudding. 

One grated cocoanut. 

One dozen eggs, well beaten, with half a pound 
of butter and a pound of sugar. 

To be baked in puflF paste. 

Some persons leave out the yelks of the eggs. 
In Barbadoes the whites are left out, and the cocoa- 
nut pressed in a. dry towel till all the oil is ex- 
tracted ; butter is added instead. Best way. 

Fig Pudding. 

Three-fourths of a pound of grated bread,Jialf 
a pound of figs, six ounces of suet, six ounces of 
sugar, one teacupful of milk, a little nutmeg, and 
other spices. 

Figs and suet to be chopped fine. Mix the bread 
and suet first, then the figs and sugar, and then one 
eggy and the milk last. Boil one hour. 

To be eaten with sauce made of sugar, butter, 
wine, and spices, or lemon. 

Hague Pudding* 

Juice of three lemons, the rinds grated in it. 
One pound of sugar. 



274 PVDDmos. 

Five eggs. 

Quarter pound of butter. 

Two spoonfuls of rich cream. 

Stir these ingredients well, and simmer them in 
a stewpan until thick and clear as honey. Stir 
them all the while. When cool, put them in puff 
paste, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Boiled Lemon PndcLiiig. 

Half pound of bread-crumbs. 
Half pound of suet. 
Half pound of sugar. 
Yelks of four eggs, whites of two. 
Grated rinds of two lemons and their juice. 
Mix thoroughly, beat well, and boil one hour 
and a half 

Sweet Potato Pndding No. 2. 

One pound of boiled and strained potatoes, three- 
fourths of a pound of butter, the same of sugar, six 
eggs, one nutmeg, and a glass of wine or brandy. 
Bake in a crust. 

Transparent Padding* 

The yelks of eight eggs, half a pound of sugar, 
the same of butter, the rinds of two oranges, and 
the juice of one. Bake in a rich, puff paste. 

Raleigh Padding. 

Ten eggs, thirteen spoonfuls of sugar, five of 
flour, three-fourths of a pound of butter. Bake in 
a deep dish, and serve hot. 



PUDDINGS, 275 

Irish Potato Pudding. 

Eight eggs, well beaten, one pound of sugar, 
half a pound of butter, and three-fourths of a 
pound of mashed and strained potatoes, lemon- 
peel and juice, with a glass of white wine. 

Mock Cocoannt Pudding. 

Made as lemon pudding, with four spoonfuls 
of sifted Indian meal in place of the four pounded 
crackers. 

Most persons mistake this pudding for real cocoa- 
nut pudding. 

Suet Pudding. 

Rub half a pound of chopped suet into one quart 
of sifted flour; add to these one quart of sweet 
milk, and eight eggs, well beaten, with a little salt. 
Boil your pudding, either in a form or a floured 
cloth, four hours. 

Any of the sauces of this book suit it. 

Corn-starch Pudding. 

Boil a quart of milk, and thicken it with three 
tablespoonfuls of corn-starch, then remove the mix- 
ture to a bowl, and beat into it four eggs, two 
cups of sugar, and one of butter. Bea^; all well 
together, and bake your puddings in plates, covered 
with puff paste. Flavor with lemon-peel or nut- 
meg. 



276 VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 

Framenty— an Old English Dish, 

Bcald a half gallon of new wheat, rub ofi'the husks 
or bran, and boil it in water till perfectly tender ; 
boil down nearly all the moisture, then add a half 
gallon of new milk; let it boil again, and, while 
boiling, add half a dozen eggs, well beaten, with a 
pound of white sugar, and a few sticks of cinnamon. 
When sufficiently done, take out the cinnamon. 
This is a dish very much enjoyed at harvesting. 



Pancakes. 

One quart of milk. 

One quart of flour (slight). 

Four eggs. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Mix as fritters. Grease a frying-pan, pour in 
sufficient batter to make th^ cakes as large in cir- 
cumference as a breakfast plate. When done, do 
not turn them, but roll them up as you would a 
sheet of paper. Send them to the table hot, with 
syrup, or sauce of any kind you fancy. 

Apple Damplings. 

Pare and core a dozen good-sized apples ; make 
a paste of one quart and a half of flour, with milk 
and a good spoonful of butter or sweet lard ; work 
the paste smooth, till free from flour, then inclose 
each apple in a thin crust, smoothly, and without 
seams or openings; roll them in flour, inclose them 
also in a square cloth, pinned securely over each 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 277 

dumpling, and throw them in boiling water for a 
couple of hours. When done, take them from the 
cloths, and send them to table hot. To be eaten 
with butter and sugar, or some sweet sauce. 

Peach, cherry, or blackberry dumplings are made 
in this way. 

Apple, Peachy or Berry Tarnovers. 

Make a crust as for apple dumplings ; roll it out 
in an oblong form, quite thin ; slice your apples or 
peaches, or wash and pick your berries, cover the 
crust with them, then roll up the paste, press down 
well all the edges, so as to prevent the escape of 
the fruit ; roll up the turnover in a boiling-cloth, 
taking care to pin it up securely, and throw it in 
boiling water for a couple of hours or more. 

Eaten as apple duniplings. 

Fritters. 

One quart of flour. 

One quart of milk. 

Four eggs. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Mix in the flour, a little milk at a time till the 
whole is in, then add the yelks of the eggs, and 
the whites when beaten to a stiff froth. 

Drop a spoonful at a time in boiling lard, and 
fry the fritters to a light-brown color. 

To be eaten with wine and sugar, syrup, or any 
of the sweet sauces to be found in this book. 

24 



278 VARIOUS DISHES FOR DRSSBRT. 

Apple Fritters 

Are made in the same way, with four or five apples 
grated or sliced iu the batter. 

Bell Fritters. \ 

Boil one quart of water, and stir in while it is 
boiling one quart of flour, then break in a dozea 
fresh eggs, one at a time, stirring all the while 
briskly ; when well mixed, drop by spoonfuls in 
boiling lard. Take care there should be sufficient 
lard to prevent the fritter from touching the bot- 
tom of the pan. Sift powdered white sugar over 
them, and eat them with rich, boiled sauce, or 
whipped cream and sugar. 

Cheese Cakes. 

Boil two quarts of new milk, and, while boiling, 
add half a cup of buttermilk, which will cause the 
curd to separate from the whey; squeeze the curd 
in a clean napkin, then weigh it, and add to it ' 
its weight in sugar and half its weight in butter; 
then beat six eggs till very light, stir them well in 
the curds, with the juice and grated rind of a 
lemon or orange. Some prefer a little pounded 
mace. 

Floating Island No* 1. 

One quart of milk and the yelks of eight eggs 
made into a custard, then whip the whites to a 
Btift* froth, and pour it on the top of a pan of boil- 
ing water ; cover it, let it stand a few moments to 
cook, then lift it off carefully with a perforated 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT, 279 

skimmer, and put it on the custard in spoonfuls. 
They should form a circle of islands around the 
dish, besides several in the center. It should be 
a spacious glass dish. 

Floating Island No. 2« 

Wiiip the whites of a dozen eggs to a stiff froth, 
and gradually add to them, spoonful by spoonful, a 
tumbler of jelly, made of any kind of fruit. Have 
ready a glass dish of rich milk or cream, lay the 
whipped eggs and jelly on the surface by spoon- 
fuls. Do not let them touch one another. 

Rice Blanc-mange. 

Wash and well soak a pint of best white rice, 
and boil it in three pints of pure water till every 
grain is dissolved, and the water displaced by a 
thick paste of the rice; then add to it a cup of 
sugar, the rind of a lemon, grated, with a little 
cinnamon, and a cup of rich cream, beat to a stiff 
froth : then pour your blanc-mange in moulds, turn 
them out on glass dishes, and eat them with pre- 
serves or custard. 

Strawberry or raspberry juice or jelly, mingled 
with this preparation of rice, looks well in moulds 
or forms. 

Boiled Custard. 

Set a quart of milk on the fire to boll, then 
break eight eggs into a bowl, with eight lejpoonfuis 
of sugar, which beat together till very light. As 
soon as the milk boils, pour it on the eggs, and 



. I 



280 VARIOUS DISJTES FOR DESSERT. 

stir it well; then wash out the stewpan clean in 
which the milk was boiled^and return the custard, 
set it over the fire again to boil, slightl}'^ stirring 
it all the while. 

There is commonly a little curdled milk in the 
bottom of the stewpan after boiling, and if the eggs 
are poured into it, without washing out the stew- 
pan, the custard will be spoiled. 

I. 

Rock Costard* 

Make this custard as above, leaving out the 
whites of the eggs. Pour your custard when done 
in a china dish, and having whipped the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, fill it up as high as possi- 
ble on the custard ; set it in the oven, and brown 
it slightly. 

This is a beautiful dish, and much improved by 
grating in the whipped whites of the eggs the rind 
of a fresh, green lemon. 

Baked Custard. 

Boil a quart of new milk, with a couple of bitter 
almonds or a stick of cinnamon. Let it cool, and 
beat into it six eggs, with six spoonfuls of sugar; 
fill your cups, and set them in a pan of hot water 
in the oven to bake. Take them out as soon as firm. 

Rice Flummery* 

Thicken milk with rice flour, after having boiled 
in it a fdW sticks of cinnamon. Sweeten to your 
taste. You may turn it out from a mould, if you 
like. 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT, 281 

Farina Blanc-mange. 

Boil in a quart of rich, sweet milk a handful of 
bitter almonds or a bunch of peach leaves. After 
the milk has boiled, take out the leaves or almonds, 
and add three large spoonfuls of loaf-sugar, and, 
gra,dually, half a pint of farina, wet with a cup of 
cold water or milk, stirring it all the while. When 
sufficientlj doue, wet your moulds with cold water, 
and turn the blanc-mange into them. Do not turn 
tb^m out of the moulds till about to serve them. 

Mould Custard. 

Boil as for boiled custard, and, while boiling the 
second time, add an ounce of gelatine dissolved in a 
cup of milk, with a cup of rich cream, sweetened; 
then pour your custard into naoulds. Flavor with 
lemon or vanilla. 



24* 



282 VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 



lOE OBEAHS. 

Vanilla Ice Cream No. !• 

Boil three-fourths of a pound of loaf-sugar in a 
teacupful of water, and half of a vanilla bean, till it 
becomes a thick syrup. When it is cold, add half 
a gallon of rich, sweet cream ; whip it to a stiff 
syllabub, and freeze it in the usual way. Strain 
the syrup before adding the cream. 

Vanilla Ice Cream No. 2 

Is made with half a gallon of sweet, rich cream, 
a spoonful of vanilla essence or extract, and three- 
fourths of a pound of loaf-sugar. Freeze it 

Lemon Ice Cream No. !• 

One quart of milk and one quart of rich cream. 

Three-fourths of a pound of loaf-sugar. 

Two lemons. 

Two teaspoonfuls of arrowroot. 

Wet the arrowroot with a little cold milk taken 
from the quart, and while the latter is boiling stir 
it in carefully ; stirring all the while till done. 

When coldy add the cream and sugar, put it in 
your freezer, and when nearly frozen add the 
lemon-juice and grated peel, which have been 
steeping together. 

Some persons add two eggs while the milk is 
boiling. 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSS^RT. 288 

Lemon Ice Cream No. 2« 

Boil three-fourths of a pound of loaf-sugar in a 
quart of milk ; while the milk is boiling, wet up two 
teaspoonfuls of arrowroot with a little cold milk, 
and stir it in gradually to that which is boiling. 
When the mixture is cold, add the grated peel of 
two lemons, with their juice, and a pint of rich 
cream. Freeze as usual. 

Peach Cream* 

Take fine ripe, luscious, soft peaches, pare them, 
and chop them up fine, then sprinkle them with 
pounded white sugar, to your taste ; add to them 
an equal quantity of rich, sweet cream, or milk 
and freeze them. 

Raspberry Cream. 

Make a rich boiled custard, and when it is cold 
add half the quantity of rich, sweet cream ; mash 
the raspberries fine, with loaf sugar, add them to 
the custard and cream, and freeze it. Turned out 
in a form it is very handsome, and to the taste 
delicious. 

strawberry Cream 

May be made as above, or with rich cream alone, 
with sugar to your taste. 

Chocolate Cream* 

A quarter of a pound of scraped chocolate to a 
quart of milk ; boil it, stirring all the while till 
well mixed and dissolved; add six eggs and six 
spoonfuls of loaf-sugar, beaten well together. Stir 
it hard while it comes to the boiling-point, and 



284 VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 

then set it aside to get cold. Freeze it. A little 
vanilla essence improves it. 

Almond Cream. 

Take a pound of almonds in the shell, crack and 
blanch them ; pound them in a mortar with half 
a dozen bitter almonds. Mix them with a qaart 
of sweet cream, and freeze it. 



Newbem Syllabob. 

Pour a tumblerful of Madeira wine into a large 
bowl with the same quantity of loaf-sugar. Let the 
sugar dissolve, then add a quart of rkh creamy then 
with a bunch of rods or an egg-beater whip the 
cream till so stift* that, on holding a spoonful up- 
sidedown in the air, the cream will not drop. Now 
add the juice and grated rind of a lemon, beat the 
cream fiomewhat longer, and fill your glasses high. 

Moonshine Syllabub. 

Mix together the above-mentioned ingredients, 
and whip them with a bunch of rods ; as the froth 
rises fill your glasses high. 

In this way you will fill many more glasses than 
with theNewbern syllabub; but there will be little 
more than moonshine. 

This preparation is for show. 

Eggnog. 

Beat together till very light the yelks of six eggs 
and six spoonfuls of loaf-sugar; whip the whites 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT, . 285 

of the eggs very light, and add gradually a tumbler- 
ful of rich cream, then pour them gradually into 
the yelks and sugar; add last of all a wineglassful 
of brandy, 

Cnstis Charlotte-Russe. 

One pint of rich, sweet cream. 

One teacupful of powdered loaf-sugar. 

One tablespoonful of vanilla extract. 

Three-fourths of an ounce of isinglass, dissolved 
in a gill of hot milk. 

Mix all these together when the milk is cold. 

Line a deep dish with lady-fingers or sponge 
cake, and when the cream is partially congealed 
pour it into the mould. 

If the weather is warm, set it on ice till required 
for use, when turn it out on a plate and sift pow- 
dered white sugar over it. 

Lady Raleigh's Charlotte-Russe* 

One pint of stiiF calf s feet jelly, cleared, and 
sweetened with half a pound of loaf-sugar. 

One pint of rich, sweet cream, whipped to a 
stiff froth, with the grated rind and juice of two 
lemons. 

Mix the jelly and cream while the jelly is in a 
tepid state of temperature, and pour the whole into 
two moulds. ' 

Eat the Charlotte -russe with sweetmeats or 
orange marmalade. 

Charlotte-Rnsse. 

The whites of four eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, 
and three tablespoonfuls of powdered white sugar 



286 ♦ VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 

stirred into half a pint of cream. Dissolve one- 
third of a paper of Cox's gelatine in a teacap of 
milk, when lukewarm add to the above, and leave 
to cool. 

Line a bowl with pieces of sponge cake, and 
pour the above mixture in it; when congealed, put 
a plate over the bowl and turn out the mould. 
Flavor with any extract. 

Blanc-mange No. !• 

Dissolve an ounce of isinglass in a quart of new 
milk; pound two ounces of blanched almonds in a 
marble mortar, with a little rose-water, to a smooth 
paste, add them to the milk while warm, and pour 
the whole into moulds. When congealed, turn them 
out on plates or glass dishes. 

Blanc-mange No. 2. 

The best and nicest blanc-mange is made of calf s 
feet jelly. Thus, clean the feet thoroughly, lay 
them in water, with a little weak lye, twenty-four 
hours, then for a night in clear water ; after which 
parboil them, take them out of the pot, scrape and 
pick them over, then put them in clean water in a 
clean porcelain kettle, and boil them to rags. Take 
them out and strain the water, then let it stand to 
get cold; skim oflFthe grease perfectly. The stock 
prepared in this way will be very nice. Cut it oft* 
from the sediment, about a quart, and melt it, 
then add to it a pint of rich cream, six ounces of 
loaf-sugar, a teaspoonful of vanilla extract, and a 
handful of bitter almonds, beat to a paste. Pour 
it in moulds. 



VARIOUS DISHES FOR DESSERT. 287 

Eve's Delight. 

Pare a dozen fine, smooth pippins, and cut them 
crosswise, in slices half an inch thick; spread them 
in a wide dish for an hour to dry, then make a rich 
syrap of loaf-sugar, lay in it half the slices of 
apples, and let them simmer slowly for fifteen 
minutes, then take them out and spread them in 
another dish to get cold, while the other half of 
the apples is preserving. Take these out also in 
fifteen minutes, and place the first half of the apples 
in the syrup again. Take care the slices are not 
broken by rapid boiling. As soon as they appear 
clear and done, take them out, lay in the other 
half again till done and clear, then take them out 
and lay the whole carefully in a deep glass dish. 
Now add the grated rind of two fresh oranges to 
the syrup, and the juicy pulp of the oranges, care- 
fully scraped out of the skins^'ith a fruit-knife, as 
for orange marmalade. Allow the syrup again to 
simmer a little, and pour the whole over the apples 
in the glass dish. When the preserve is perfectly 
cold, pile up high on it a syllabub of rich cream, 
flavored with the rind of an orange and its juice. 

Cranberries. 

Pick and wash your cranberries, and to every 
pound allow three-fourths of a pound of sugar. 
Stew them till thick and clear, then turn them out 
in a mould. 

Or, make a syrup of a pound of sugar, and pre- 
serve them whole. 



288 CANDIES, 



Sugar Candy* 

Wet up two pounds of sugar with a half pint of 
cold water and the juice of a lemon or four table- 
spoonfuls of sharp vinegar; let it boil till on dipping 
your finger in cold water and then in the candy it 
will form on the finger a candy that will crack 
when you bite it. Then it is ready to pull. Do 
not stir it, or it will turn to sugar. Pour it out on 
a greased dish, and when you can bear your hand 
on it, take it up and pull it with both hands, or 
rather with the tips of your fingers. Draw it out 
in small strings, and endeavor not to crush them 
together more than you can avoid. This will 
make your candy light, porous, and brittle. When 
it has become sufficiently white, draw it out to the 
size you wish on a clean table, and cut it in lengths 
to suit yourself. If you wish clear candy, as soon 
as it is sufficiently boiled pour it into a greased 
dish, and let it cool, then cut it in strips, or into 
any shape you fancy. 

Almond, Gronnd-pea, or Cocoanat Candy. 

Boil as in the above receipt, and after filling 
evenly a greased dish with blanched almonds, 
shelled, ground-peas, or grated cocoanut, pour the 
candy over them; let it get cold, and cut it in 
strips or squares. 



CANDIES. 289 

Another and a favorite kind of Candy. 

Wet up the sugar with sweet cream instead of 
water, stir it till it returns to sugar, and then pour 
it on the dish of prepared nuts. 

A Candied Tree. 

A beautiful ornament for a supper-table, as well 
as a delicious refreshment. 

Blanch two pounds of sweet almonds, and get a 
bunch of quills, cut oflf the clear part, say about 
four inches long, split them down into foar or five 
strips, not quite *to the opposite end ; then stick an 
almond on each strip, and lay them by till wanted. 
Then boil five pounds of white sugar to the crack, 
with the juice of three lemons or four spoonfuls 
of sharp vinegar; pour half of it into a greased 
dish, and when cool enough pull it. Leave the 
other half in the kettle, near the fire, to prevent it 
from getting cold. Having pulled the first half 
till quite white, divide it into five parts, and pull 
each piece out to the length of at least half a yard, 
then twist the ends together a third of the length 
to form the trunk of the tree, and having placed 
one of the branches straight up, in a perpendicular 
position, bend the four others outward, in a natural 
curve. At the base of the tree wind a piece of 
clear candy around so as to form a stand or pe- 
destal. Place the tree on a table, and now take a 
piece of the warm candy, about the size of a small 
walnut, roll it in your hands, and placing one finger 
on it, push it through the middle of the ball, and 
move the finger about so' as to form a cup similar 

25 



290 CANDIES. 

to a convolvulus. Now take one piece of quill on 
which you have placed the almonds, put the stem 
end in the cup, and through the bottom of it, so as 
to have stamens for your lily ; add another piece of 
candy to the stem, and now exercise your taste or 
genius in forming the flowering branches of your 
candy tree; no further directions are necessary. 
Leaves also may be formed of the clear candy. 

The quivering motion of the almond stamens 
in the flowers, with the transparent flowers and 
leaves in the candlelight, have a fine eflfect, and 
the branches of candy and almonds make a de- 
licious treat. 

Silk, Thread, or Spun Sugar. 

Boil your candy as in above receipts, to the de- 
gree when it will crack, then draw out threads with 
a couple of forks, and place them in any form you 
fancy over your cakes or pyramids of fruit or 
candies. These look well by candle- or lamplight. 

Molasses Candy* 

Boil molasses till it will roll up between your 
fingers without sticking, then to be treated as sugar 
candy. 

Uorehound Candy* 

Boil a handful of horehound in a half pint of 
water, then take out the herb, strain the water, 
and wet up your sugar with it and the juice of a 
lemon or a little vinegar. 

For an obstinate cold a little cherry bark is good 
added to the above decoction, and a little pare- 
goric and gum-arabic to the candy. 



PRESERVING FRUITS. 291 



PEESEEVING FEUITS. 

Make choice of the most perfect fruits for pre- 
serving. Let them be fair, unblemished, and free 
from specks of decay. These will discolor your 
syrup, give it a bad taste, and produce fermenta- 
tion. Let your fruit be ripe, but not on the de- 
cline of its perfection ; let it rather be approaching 
this desirable condition. 

There is no economy in using cheap or inferior 
sugar for preserving. The best clarified will do 
for cherries, plums, blackberries, and the like, in- 
tended for tarts or pies ; but these should be well 
boiled, skimmed, and sunned. They should, too, 
be thoroughly done, till their syrup is very thick. 
Such may be kept in stone jars in almost any quan- 
tity, with pound for pound of sugar; but for all 
other preserves, glass tumblers or small glass jars 
are best. Sunning is very beneficial to preserves 
of all kinds. 

The best double refined loaf-sugar (or crushed) 
is indispensable for all fine preserves, and even 
these should be clarified with ^gg or isinglass. 

Preserves of every kind should be done slowly. 
Rapid boiling injures the form, and toughens and 
shrivels the skins of plums, cherries, and grapes, 
breaking such fruits as have been peeled, and often 
discoloring them and their syrup. 

Nor should your fruit be crowded in the pre- 
serving-kettle. This also spoils the form. Rather 



292 PRESERVING FRUITS. 

put m a few at a time, allow them to simmer 
slowly for ten or fifteen minutes, then taking them 
out carefully, one by one, with a silver spoon or 
perforated skimmer, lay them on dishes to cool 
while another portion of your fruit is preserving. 
Take these out in like manner in another dish, 
and so on till the whole quantity has been sim- 
mered ; then begin at the first dish, and repeat the 
process till all your preserves become transparent : 
then remove them to the glass jars or tumblers 
designed for them. Boil your syrup till thick and 
clear, wait till it becomes nearly cool, and then 
pour it over the fruit. Close your jars well, either 
with good corks, papered at the bottom, or thick 
white paper. Set your preserves away in a cool, 
dry place. Examine them frequently, and if at all 
inclined to ferment boil them again, first adding 
a few spoonfuls of pounded white sugar to the 
syrup. Let them boil very gently. 

Set your jars in the sun for two or three weeks 
after your preserving is done, and there will be 
no danger of fermentation. 

Preserves should be carefully skimmed while 
doing. The skimmings need not be lost, as they 
will add very much to the strength of your vinegar. 

All the larger fruits should be pared. The par- 
ing should be narrow and thin. 

No preserve will keep well with less than pound 
for pound of fruit and sugar. 

Marmalades, jams, and jellies should be covered 
with a nicely-fitting paper in each jar, or tumbler 
saturated with brandy, and laid in so as to lie on the 



PRESERVING FRUITS. 293 

surface of the preserve. Besides this, the tumbler 
or jar should be covered with thick paper, and 
pasted down so as to exclude the air and insects. 

Syrup for Preserves or Drinks* 

Six pounds of best loaf-sugar. 

One pint and a half of water. 

One-fourth of an ounce of isinglass or whites 
of three eggs. 

Dissolve the sugar in the water, thoroughly, and 
then simmer it slowly. Skim it well while sim- 
mering till very thick and clear. Keep it in glass 
jars, well covered, in a cool, dry place. 

If it is for drinks, such as punch or soda-water, 
you may flavor it with lemon, ginger, or anything 
else you fancy. 

Preserved Pineapples. 

Pare, slice, and weigh your pines, and to every 
pound allow the same weight of best loaf-sugar. 
Put the sliced pines into a deep china dish, with 
intermediate layers of sugar. Do this at night, 
and in the morning pour off all the syrup into your 
preserving-kettle, let it simmer till quite thick and 
clear, then pour it boiling hot over the pineapples. 
Set it away till quite cold, and then transfer the 
preserves to glass jars. Cover them well, as in 
general directions, and keep them cool and dry. 

Syrup to be clarified with egg or isinglass. 

Peaches and Apricots* 

Choose the finest you can get; pare and stone 
them, cut them in half, weigh them, and allow an 

25* 



294 PRE SERVING FRUITS. 

equal quantity of sugar. Put your fruit and sugar 
into deep china dishes in alternate layers. Do this 
at night; in the morning pour all the juice and 
sugar into your preserving-kettle, and let it sim- 
mer. Clarify it as usual, skimming it well. Put 
in portions of your fruit, and proceed as in general 
directions. 

Pears 9 Quinces, and Nectarines 

Are preserved in the same way, except that they 
should be first simmered till tender in clear water, 
and with this water the sugar should be moistened. 
Pears and quinces are usually flavored with 
lemon or spices, as most preferred. 

To take the Stones oat of whole Peaches* 

Cut a slit across the ends of the peach, then insert 
a narrow-bladed penknife, bear against the stone, 
and cut the fruit loose from it as you turn the 
peach in your hand; then proceed in the same way 
with the other end. When you have gone all 
around the peach-stone with the knife, press the 
peach in a transverse direction to the slit across 
the end of it, and with a stick or your knife push 
the stone out. 

Do not pare the peach till the stone is out. 

Preserve in the usual way, taking care not to 
break the peaches. 

To Preserve Pineapple whole. 

Take a tine ripe, sound pineapple, trim off the 
leaves a little, place it in a kettle of warm, clear 
water over the fire, let the water boil slowly till 



PRESERVmO FRUITS. 295 

you can easily pierce the pine with a straw, then 
take it out, let it get cold, and pare it nicely, 
leaving on the smaller buds at the point. Have 
ready a deep preserving- kettle or pan, whose cir- 
cumference is a little more than that of the fruit to 
be preserved, weigh your pine, and to every pound 
allow a pint of prepared syrup, or sufficient to 
cover the fruit well in the kettle ; let the syrup be- 
come warm, then put in your pine, cover it, and 
let it simmer slowly for twenty minutes; -take it 
from the fire, let it become cool, and transfer it, 
with the syrup, to a glass jar. 

Green IHelon Sweetmeat. 

Pare and slice the rinds of ripe musk- or water- 
melons, and throw them in salt and water; let 
them remain forty-eight hours, then soak them a 
night in clear, cold water. In the morning, put 
them in the preserving-kettle over a dull fire, and 
cover them in weak alum- water; let them steam 
awhile, then throw them into cold water for several 
hours. Having weighed them, with equal weight of 
loaf-sugar, make a rich syrup, highly flavored with 
the juice and rinds of lemons and ginger. In the 
mean time, put your melons into your preserving- 
kettle again, with alternate layers of vine leaves, 
and simmer them over a dull fire till green and 
tender. Take them from the kettle, and immerse 
them again in cold water for a short time, and then 
simmer them gently in the lemon syrup till per- 
fectly transparent, when put them in glass jars, 
and pour the syrup over them. Cover them close. 



296 PRESERVING FRUIT8. 

Cherries* 

Choose the largest, finest, and fairest, ripe cher- 
ries, remove the stones, weigh them, and give them 
equal weight of loaf or clarified sugar. Put them 
in your preserving-kettle with the sugar and the 
beaten white of an egg. Simmer slowly for twenty 
minutes, skim well, then take out your cherries with 
a perforated skimmer, and spread them on dishes to 
get cold; then let your sugar boil down to a thick 
syrup, put your cherries back into it for a few 
minutes, and then seal them up well in glass jars. 

Dewberriety Strawberries, and Raspberries* 

Pick your berries early in the morning, weigh 
them, then spread them on dishes, sprinkle them 
with sugar from the due proportion assigned them 
(pound for pound). When the juice settles from 
them in the dishes, pour it off, and with it moisten 
the remainder of their sugar; simmer this over a 
slow fire, and, while simmering, drop in a portion 
of the berries ; let them become clear, and return 
them to the dishes to cool while the remainder 
takes their place in the kettle. When all are clear, 
and the syrup boiled down to a rich consistency, 
pour it over them, and, when cool enough, transfer 
them to glass jars. 

Preserved Tomatoes* 

Take ripe, unblemished plum or pear tomatoes, 
scald them, and remove the skins, weigh them, and 
spread them on shallow dishes till cold and firm, 



PRESERVING FRUITS. 297 

then take an equal weight of hest loaf-sugar, and 
prepare a syrup as before directed, richly flavored 
with lemon and ginger. While your syrup is sim- 
mering, drop in your tomatoes, one by one, till 
the surface is covered, but not crowded; simmer 
live minutes; take your tomatoes out, and spread 
them on dishes to get cold, as before directed 
for preserving fruit. Simmer and spread to cool 
another portion of your tomatoes till all are clear, 
and the syrup quite thick and rich, when remove 
the tomatoes to glasses, and when cold cover an^ 
seal them as usual. *' " 

Preserved Apples. 

Pare, core, and quarter fine, fair pippins, weigh 
them, and allow an equal 'quantity of best loaf- 
sugar. Make a rich syrup, flavored with lemon or 
cinnamon, simmer your apples in the syrup till you 
can pierce them with a straw or till clear. Take 
care not to simmer them till they break. Cover 
them with the syrup in glass jars. 

Baked Apples with Tapioca. 

Pare six large pippins, take out the cores with a 
penknife, and fill their places with a bit of cinna- 
mon or fresh lemon-peel. Place them neatly in a 
baking-dish, boil a tablespoonful of tapioca in a 
pint of water till dissolved, sweeten it to your taste, 
pour it over the apples, with a little lemon-juice, 
and bake them till well done. To be eaten cold^ 
with milk or cream. 



298 PRESERVING FRUITS. 

Compote of Apple* 

Make a syrup of a pound of white sugar ; while 
boiling, pare eight small pippins, halve them, take 
out the cores, and throw them into the boiling 
syrup ; after boiling till tender, take them out, and 
place them neatly in a glass dish; flavor the syrup 
with lemon, and pour it over the apples. 

Plums, peaches, or pears may be prepared thus. 

Commoii Crab-apples Preserved* 

:4||ke out the cores and seed with a quill, then 
•ffivi them, and take off the skins ; simmer them 
in vine leaves and alum-water till green and tender, 
then throw them into clear, cold water to soak out 
the alum. Weigh them, and allow to each pound 
a pound and a half of loaf-sugar. Make a rich 
lemon syrup with the sugar, and while simtnering 
throw in the crabs, let them do till transparent, 
and then remove them to glass jars, and when the 
syrup is of a rich, thick consistency, pour it over 
them, if your jars are warm. Ginger will improve 
the flavor. 

To Preserve Green Ginger* 

"Wash and pare your ginger, then simmer it in 
pure water; throw out this water, and simmer it 
in a second, then a third. By this time the ginger 
will have become mild in taste as well as tender. 
Weigh it, and allow to each pound a pound of loaf- 
sugar. Make a rich syrup, as for other preserves, 
simmer your ginger in it till perfectly clear, and it 
is done. 



PRESERVINO FRUITS. 299 

Preserved Plums* 

Stem, wash, and weigh your plums. They should 
be barely ripe, fair, and free from blemishes. If 
you prefer it, you may scald them, and remove the 
skins. 

Make a rich syrup, drop them in while it is sim- 
mering, and, when the fruit appears done, take it 
out and let it get cold, while the syrup is boiled 
down to the proper consistency, when pour it on 
the fruit, and put your preserves away as before 
directed. 

Brandy Peaches. 

Choose large, fine, fair, heath peaches or lemon 
clings, throw them in boiling ashes and water, or 
pearlash-water, for five or ten minutes; take them 
out and wipe ofi^ the fur with a coarse towel, and 
throw them in cold water. When cool, put them in a 
stone jar or deep china bowl, and cover them with 
equal weight of loaf-sugar. Let them so remain till 
morning, when pour ott' the syrup and sugar, sim- 
mer in a preserving-kettle gently, thou throw in 
the peaches, and let them remain in the syrup till 
you can pierce them with a straw, then put them 
in glass jars ; simmer the syrup till quite thick, 
much thicker than for ordinary preserves. Add 
half a pint of brandy to every pound of peaches; 
pour it into the syrup just before yo\x take it from 
the fire, let it remain ten minutes, when fill up 
your jars of peaches so as to cover them well. Seal 
carefully from the air. 

Another way. — Take oft' the fur as above directed, 



800 PRESERVING FRUITS. 

weigh your peaches and sugar in equal portions, 
put them in jars, with alternate layers of sugar, 
and fill up with best brandy. Seal them well, and 
do not open them till Christmas. 

Peach Marmalade. 

Take very ripe, soft peaches, pare them and slice 
them tine; add to them an equal weight of clarified 
sugar, and stew them till of a transparent pulp. 
When cold, it should be a firm jelly. 

Orange Marmalade* 

Peel your oranges, cut the peel in narrow strips 
with your scissors, and boil them in clear water till 
quite tender, then take your fruit-knife, open the 
skins of the oranges, scrape out all the juicy pulp 
carefully in a bowl, and throw away the skins and 
pith. Then to each pound of the orange put one 
pound of loaf-sugar; make a syrup with the sugar, 
and boil it to candy height, when put in the orange 
and boiled orange-peel. Stir all the while. Boil 
it gently for twenty minutes. 

Peach Chips. 

Cut ripe peaches into thin slices, and simmer 
them slightly in a syrup of good brown or clarified 
sugar. Lay them in shallow dishes in the sun, and 
pour over them, every day, a portion of the syrup 
till the whole is absorbed. When dry, pack them 
away in jars, with sugar sifted over each layer. 

Haifa pound of sugar to a pound of peaches will 



PRESERVING FRUITS. 801 

do for the syrup. While drying, cover them with 
thin muslin on a frame. 

Quince and Fear Marmalade* 

Wash and quarter your fruit without paring or 
coring it, then boil it in water sufficient to cover it. 
When quite done and soft, take it out, and cut out 
the cores, pare off the skin, and cut it in thin 
slices. Weigh your fruit, and allow half a pound 
of sugar to a pound of fruit. Make a syrup of the 
sugar and the water in which the fruit was boiled. 
Stew the fruit gently in the syrup till quite thick 
and firm, and then put it away in jars or boxes, 
lined with white paper. 

Flavor with lemon or cinnamon. 

Preserved Fears* 

Boil them in clear water till tender, and preserve 
them with their weight of loaf-sugar. Flavor with 
lemon, cloves, or cinnamon. 

Proceed in the usual way. 

Jams* 

Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, etc. are 
made into jams with their weight in sugar. To be 
stewed, and mashed while stewing to a thick, firm 
pulp. 

Tomato Marmalade. 

Scald and skim them. To one pound of tomatoes 
add half a pound of sugar, and spices to your taste. 
Stew them down to a thick pulp. 

Either green or ripe tomatoes make an excellent 

26 



302 PRESERVING FRUITS. 

marmalade, which will be found a pleasant accom^ 
paniment to meats. 

Siberian Crabs. 

Wash the crabs and prick them with a needle, to 
prevent them from splitting, then simmer them in 
clear water till you may prick them easily with a 
broomstraw. Weigh them, and allow a pound and 
a half of loaf-sugar to a pound of the fruit. Make 
a syrup of the sugar and a portion of the water iu 
which the crabs were boiled. Simmer the crabs in 
this syrup till transparent, then put them in jars, 
and cover them with the syrup when well boiled. 
The syrup should be clarified with ^gg or isinglass, 
and highly flavored with lemon and ginger. 

Some take out the cores with a quill. 

To make Green Sweetmeats. 

Put your fruit in salt and water for a night and 
day, then scald it in alum- water, after which it will 
be quite green ; then soak it in clear water for a 
few hours. Now weigh your fruit and sugar in 
equal portions, and stew gently in a preserving- 
kettle, with lemon, ginger, and a small piece of 
mace. The process should continue till the sweet- 
meats are clear and the syrup thick, say of the con- 
sistency of honey. When cold, put your sweet- 
meats in glass jars, and cover them close. 

Citron from Muskmelons. 

Take half-grown muskmelons, and throw them 
in salt and water for a week to harden them, then 



PRESERVING FRUITS, 803 

soak them for a week in clear water, changing it 
daily; cut them in halves, scrape out all the pith 
within the rinds, pare the outer rind off carefully, 
and boil the citron in alum-water till green, and 
somewhat tender; lay it in clear water till another 
morning; weigh it, and to every pound put half a 
pound of sugar, and preserve it as any other fruit. 
"When done, take the citron out, spread it in dishes, 
and boil the syrup down to the consistency of thick 
honey. Pour on a portion of it every day to the 
-citron, leaving it in the dishes to dry in the sun. 
Cover it with glasses or a thin muslin to keep out 
insects. Turn it daily, and when all the syrup is 
absorbed by the citron pack it away in jars. Cover 
it down close. 

The rind of fresh lemons should be preserved 
with the citron to give it an agreeable flavor. 



804 TRANSPARENT APPLES-^BAKED APPLES. 



APPLES. 
Transparent Apples* 

Peel two fresh lemons in narrow strips, and boil 
the strips in water sufficient to cover them till 
tender and clear; then make a syrup with loaf- 
sugar wet with the water in which the lemon-skins 
were boiled, — or with more if necessary. 

Then pare twelve fine pippins, and take out the 
cores, throw them in the syrup with the lemon 
peelings; let the pippins remain in the syrup for 
ten minutes, then take them out, let them become 
cool, and return them to the syrup for ten minutes 
more, turning them over frequently. Repeat this 
till the apples are perfectly transparent, then put 
them in a glass dish, and pour the warm syrup 
over them. Let them get cold before serving 
them. 

This is a very handsome as well as delicious dish. 
To be eaten with sweet cream. 

Baked Apples* 

Pare and core your apples, till the middle, from 
whence the core was taken, with a lump of sugar 
and a stick of cinnamon. Bake them in an earthen 
baking-dish. Serve them cold, with cream sweet- 
ened with loaf-sugar. 

To Stew Green Apples. 

Wash them, trim them, and put them in a sauce- 
pan whole; cover them with water, and suflfer them 






TO FRY APPLES-STEWED APPLES, 805 

to boil to a pulp, then pass them through a colander 
or hair sieve. 

Add sugar, lemon, or spices to your taste, and 
serve them for sauce, or you may make them into 
pies. 

To Fry Apples* 

Cut them in slices, sprinkle them with a little 
fine salt, and fry them in boiling lard. They form 
a very agreeable substitute for vegetables. 

stewed Apples. 

Pare your apples, and quarter them, but do not 
core them, as the seeds will give them a pleasant 
flavor ; put them in a preserving-kettle, with water 
sufficient to cover them, let them boil till quite 
tender, and pass them through a colander or a hair 
sieve; then sweeten them to your taste, flavor 
them or not, as you like, and return them to the 
preserving-kettle to stew a few minutes longer. 
This will make them clear. 

To be eaten with sweet cream. 



26* 



806 JELLIES, 



JELLIES. 

Carrant Jelly* 

Take full ripe currants, scald them in a preserv- 
ing-kettle with their own juice, then pass the juice 
through a jelly-bag. To every pint of juice add a 
pound of loaf-sugar. Boil twenty minutes. Try a 
spoonful by setting it in a cool place ; if it congeals 
well, pour it into your tumblers, and when cold 
seal them with thick paper pasted on. 

Quince Jelly. 

Cut up the quinces without paring or coring; 
simmer them in water till very soft, then pour the 
water through a jelly-bag. To every pint of water 
add three-fourths of a pound of sugar. Boil this 
till it will readily congeal when cold. 

Apple Jelly 

Is made in the same way. 

The common old field plum makes a beautiful 
jelly prepared in this way, and cannot be told 
from currant jelly, if well made. It requires more 
boiling. 

Jelly from Calves' Feet* 

To one quart of jelly put one pound of sugar, 
one pint of white wine, and a glass of brandy, the 
peel and juice of two lemons, three sticks of cin- 
namon, broken up with a little mace, then beat 
slightly the whites of three eggs, with the shells. 
Mix all well together in a preserving-kettle. Let 
it boil hard for forty minutes, then throw in a cup 



1 



JELLIES. 807 

of cold water, and let it boil ten or fifteen minutes 
more. Take a clean table-cloth, double it in four, 
and fasten it over a hoop, pour in your jelly, and 
keep it warm till the whole runs through. 

Apple Jelly. 

Cut up green pippins, or any juicy, acid apples, 
leaving the skins on and cores in ; put them in a 
kettle, and cover them with water; boil them till 
soft, then strain them through a hair sieve. To 
every five pints of water add three pounds of loaf- 
sugar ; let it boil till on trial of a spoonful in a 
glass it will congeal firmly. • Add lemon or spices 
as you like. 

Jelly from Gelatine. 

Soak two ounces of gelatine in 'as much water as 
will cover it, let it remain twenty-five minutes, 
then pour on it two quarts of boiling water ; let it 
thoroughly dissolve. 

Pare ofi;' the yellow rinds of four lemons, cut 
them into narrow strips, break into small pieces 
two long sticks of cinnamon; put these into a large 
bowl with one pound of sugar, and add the juice 
of the lemons, with the white of one egg, and a 
pint of white wine. Now add the gelatine to the 
contents of the bowl as soon as it is cool. Mix the 
whole well; pour it into a porcelain kettle, boil it 
fifteen minutes, and then pass it through a jelly-bag. 
On no account press the bag. 

Hartshorn Jelly. 

Kasp half a pound of hartshorn and boil it in 
three quarts of water. Cover the saucepan close. 



i_ 



808 CREAM NECTAR^APRICOTS IN BRANDY. 

and boil the hartshorn till wholly dissolved and re- 
daced two-thirds. 
Flavor and prepare as above. 

Jelly without Cooking* 

One box of gelatine, one pint of cold water 
poured over, and allowed to stand twenty minutes, 
then add a quart of boiling water, two pounds of 
loaf-sugar, the juice of four lemons, a teaspoonful 
of lemon essence, two drops of oil of cloves, and 
one pint of wine. Pour it into moulds, and leave 
till cold. 

Cream Nectar. 

Take three pounds of loaf-sugar, two ounces of 
tartaric acid, and one quart of water, put it all in a 
kettle lined with porcelain, and, when warm, add 
the whites of two eggs, beaten to a froth. Be 
careful not to let it come to a boil. When cool 
strain it, and add a teaspoonful of essence of lemon 
to flavor it. 

Take two tablespoonfuls of the syrup and stir in 
a goblet two-thirds filled with ice-water, then add 
a quarter of a teaspoonful of carb. of soda; stir 
until it effervesces, and drink immediately. 



Apricots in Brandy. 

Simmer them in prepared syrup till a little 
tender, put them in wide-mouthed bottles, fill up 
half-way with syrup, and cover them well with 
brandy. Seal them well. 



THE TEA, 309 



THE TEA. 

If you prefer a set table, place your waiter at 
the head, with teapot, coffee-urn, cups, saucers, 
sugar, cream, etc., and the placing of the remainder 
of your table equipage will be readily known to an 
intelligent mistress. 

But allow me to recommend another mode of 
serving tea, much more agreeable, convenient, and 
elegant. 

Have the waiter containing your teapot, coffee- 
urn, etc. placed on a side-table in your parlor, at 
which seat yourself to serve your guests or faraily. 
Then on another table, near by, have another waiter 
placed, containing other refreshments. If you have 
quartettes, or small tables, have these placed before 
your guests; then let one servant hand around the 
plates, knives, and forks, while the other hands the 
waiter containing cakes, etc. 

By this arrangement you will the better exercise 
the impulses of the agreeable entertainer, and pro- 
mote sociability. You give your gentlemen guests 
an opportunity of being both gallant and agreeable, 
and the ladies of displaying both graciousness and 
grace. 

Never have your tea poured out in another 
room. It allows to servants an opportunity of 
loitering, causes them to supply you with cold tea 
and coffee, besides trying unduly your patience and 
amiability. 



810 ICINQ. 



lOING. 

Icing for Cakes. 

One pound of best refined loaf-sugar, ground, and 
sifted through a silk sieve. 

The whites of four eggs. 

The juice of one leraon. 

Put the sugar in a bow], and break the whites 
of the eggs into it, then beat the mixture till it 
will fall in flakes from the spoon when held up. 
Now add the lemon-juice, and having beat it in 
well, it is ready for use. 

Icing may be colored with cochineal or poke- 
berry jelly. 

Boiled Icing* 

To a pound of loaf-sugar add a common tumbler 
three-fourths full of water ; let it boil gently till it 
will fall in strings from the spoon ; then have ready 
the whites of three eggs, well beaten ; pour your 
syrup into a bowl, stir it till it begins to look milky, 
and then gradually add the eggs. 

Beat the icing till very light and thick, still not 
too thick to spread over the cake smoothly. When 
ready, add a little essence of lemon or vanilla, and 
your icing is done. 

With a spoon lay as much of the icing on the 
center of a large cake as you think will be suf- 
ficient to form the entire covering of the cake, then 



ICINQ, 811 

with a broad knife spread it evenly from the center, 
moving the icing toward the edge of the cake, at 
the upper surface, evenly, so that it will fall of 
itself down the perpendicular sides as it falls over 
the upper edge ; guide it gently, placing the knife 
under the falling icing, not over it, or the point of 
the knife will show. Bring it all gradually down 
smoothly all around, keeping the knife under the 
falling icing. 

There should be a clean napkin under the cake, 
so that the superfluous icing will be saved as it 
falls. When your cake is entirely covered with 
the icing, set it in a warm oven a few minutes 
to dry. 

If you wish to ornament your cake with raised 
figures or flowers, beat what remains from your 
iced cake much longer, adding a spoonful of lemon- 
juice or a little tartaric acid. This will make it 
quite stiflT. Beat it till a spoonful of it held up in 
the air will hang without falling when shaken 
about. It is now ready. 

Now take a small quill, about four inches long, 
make a triangular bag of oil-silk, leave one side 
open, and tie the small, pointed end of the bag 
around the quill, fill the bag with icing, and hold- 
ing it fast with the left hand, with the right move 
the quill about, forming fiowers, leaves, or figures 
over the cake in any fanciful way you like. A 
glass syringe, if it can be had, is best. 



812 ICINQ. 



Another Ornament for Iced Cakes* the Invention of the 

Present Anthor* 

Choose a double-refined loaf pf white sugar, one 
whose grain is fine and close. Coarse, open grain 
will not answer. Cut up your loaf of sugar into 
pieces, then choose such pieces as you think will 
admit of cutting a certain flower or figure; if a 
flower, say a rosebud, get one out of your garden 
as a model, cut the lump as near like it as possible, 
then a hyacinth or white jasmine, or rose, dahlia, 
or pink. Leaves are very easily imitated. 

After icing your cake, place your wreath around 
it in an inclined position, inserting the stem or 
stem -part in the soft icing. Now cut a cup of 
sugar from a model, place it in the center, fill it 
with flowers, or place a bird or two of sugar on 
the edge by means of a little candy. 

The author once made a plum cake of a hundred 
pounds weight, iced it, put a wreath of sugar-flowers 
around it, and an entire model of a church, steeple, 
towers, doors, windows, etc., and placed it in the 
center of the cake. It was on the occasion of a 
fair given by the ladies of Wilmington, Delaware, 
for the purpose of aiding in rebuilding a church 
which was destroyed by fire. I asked for a model 
of the church, and cut my sugar-church from it. 

This large cake was baked in a bandbox, on a 
rotary stove, with a tin cover, and with (me handful 
of chips thrown in, from time to time, regularly as 
the foreffoins: one was half-burned out. It was 
done to perfection, and took eleven hours to bake. 



ICING. 318 

This is a splendid mode of ornamenting cakes, 
and makes a fine display by candle- or gaslight. 

You may make a cameo cake by covering your 
cake with pink icing, and forming figures or flowers 
over it with boiled white icing, or by cutting the 
flowers or figures of loaf-sugar for the purpose. 

A Pyramid Cake. 

Rear a pyramid of three or four iced cakes of 
graduated sizes, then cover it with spun candy, 
boiled to the crack. After covering it thus, take 
your icing-quill and form a wreath of flowers 
around each tier of cake. 

This has a beautiful eflfect in the candle- or gas- 
light.. 

To Ice Snowballs all over. 

Hold the snowball on a fork, put a spoonful of 
stiff' icing on the top of it, and coax it down with 
a small knife on the under side of the icing all 
around the cake. Thrust the handle of the fork 
into a basin or tray of flour till the icing is dry. 



2t 



814 CAKB8. 



0AEE8. 

Pound Cake. 

Onb pound of sugar. 

One pound of flour. 

One pound of butter (a light pound). 

One dozen eggs. 

Sift and dry your flour, pound and sift your 
sugar; wash your butter till free from salt, then 
cream it well, gradually adding the sugar, and 
beating the mixture till very light, then beat your 
eggs (whites and yelka separate) to a stiff froth ; 
add them gradually to the sugar and butter, alter- 
nately with the flour, by spoonfuls, till all the in- 
gredients are thoroughly amalgamated. 

Flavor your cake with lemon or nutmeg. Add 
a wineglass of wine or brandy. 

Bake your cake in a slow oven, and do not sup- 
pose it is done till you can thrust a straw into it, and 
draw it out as dry as when it entered. 

If it has risen, and split on the top, and the split 
has become browned^ it is apt to be done. Jointlyy 
these two tests are reliable. 

Mrs, Blake's Pound Cake* 

One pound of butter, washed and creamed 
One pound of flour, dried and sifted. 
One pound and an ounce of sugar, flue and 
white. 



CAKES, 815 

Sixteen eggs, leaving out eight yelks. 

Flavor to your toLste. 

Beat the butter and sugar together till very 
light, then beat the yelks of the eggs well, and add 
them to the butter and sugar, stirring the mixture 
all the while; then having beaten the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, add them also by spoon- 
fuls, alternately with spoonfuls of the flour, till 
the whole of both is taken in. Set it to rise for an 
hour or more in a greased pan, and then bake it 
in a quick oven. Be careful that it does not burn ; 
if there is danger of this, cover it with a clean, 
thick paper, and watch it till done. 

Golden Cake. 

One pound of flour, dried and sifted. 

One pound of sugar. 

Three-fourths of a pound of butter, and the yelks 
of fourteen eggs. 

The grated peel, with the juice of two lemons. 

Beat the sugar and butter to a fine cream, and 
add the yelks of the eggs, strained and well beaten, 
then add the flour, and a teaspoonful of soda, dis- 
solved in a little sweet cream. Just before putting 
the cake into the oven add the lemon-juice, beating 
it in thoroughly. 

Bake this cake in square, flat pans. When done, 
ice it thickly, and cut it in square pieces. It looks 
well mixed with silver cake in the same basket. 



816 CAKES. 

Silver Cake. 

One pound of sugar. 

Three-fourths of a pound of flour, dried and 
sifted. 

Six ounces of butter, and the whites of fourteen 

Beat the sugar and butter to a cream, add the 
whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiflT froth, and, 
lastly, the flour. 

Flavor with lemon and mace; citron will im- 
prove it. 

This, if compounded well and baked carefully, 
is a beautiful cake. 

BarbadoeB Plum Cake. 

To a well compounded pound cake add two 
pounds of raisins, stoned and chopped; two pounds 
of currants, picked, washed, and pounded, with 
half a pint of port wine ; two pounds of citron, cut 
up (not very fine). Mix a little dry flour with them 
before adding them to the pound cake. Then grate 
the rind of a good, fresh lemon, squeeze to it the 
juice, and add mace, cloves, cinnamon, allspice, 
each a teaspoonful, and a grated nutmeg. Bako 
slowly. 

Cup Cake* 

One cup of butter. 
Two cups of sugar. 
Four cups of sifted flour. 
Five eggs. 
One cup of cream. 



CAKES. 817 

Half a teaspoonful of soda. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

If your cream is sour, omit the latter. Flavor 
with lemon or spices, as you like. 

If you have lemon, add the juice, and omit the 
cream of tartar. Stir the butter and sugar together 
first, then add the eggs, and, after beating the mix- 
ture well, add the milk and flour, alternately, in 
small portions. Add the soda just before baking. 

Sponge Cake. 

Break fifteen eggs, the whites in one bowl and 
the yelks in another. Beat the yelks with one 
and a half pounds of sugar till very light, and the 
whites to a stiflT froth. Now mix the two gradu- 
ally, stirring lightly with a large knife-blade, and 
then very gradually, by spoonfuls, add a light 
pound of dry, sifted flour. 

If you wish it, add a pound of finely grated 
cocoanut, and flavor with lemon and lemon-juice. 

OnOy Two* Three, Four Cake. 

One cup of butter. 

Two cups of sugar. 

Three eggs. 

Four cups of flour. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and beat them 
till very light. Break in next the yelks of three 
eggs, stirring them in well, then, after beating the 
whites to a stiff froth, add them also, and, last of 
all, a half cup of sour cream in which you have 
dissolved a teaspoonful of soda.' 

27* 



818 CAKS8. 

Lemon Cake. 

To a well-compounded powfid cake add the juice 
and rind of three fresh lemons and a pound of cut 
citron or currants. A teaspoonfol of soda should 
be sifted with the flour. 

Orange cake is made in the same way. 

Qaeen Cake. 

Make a very light pound cake of the best materials, 
leaving out two ounces of the flour; add the juice 
and grated rinds of two fresh lemons, and a pound 
of best raisins, cut in halves. 

Bake these cakes in small pans, quickly, and ice 
them handsomely. 

Lady Cake. 

Blanch and pound to a smooth paste two ounces 
of bitter almonds, and wet them with a spoonful 
of rose-water, then cream together a pound of loaf- 
sugar (well pounded and sifted) with three-fourths 
of a pound of best, fresh butter (without salt). 
When very light, add the pounded almonds, and 
then, alternately with three-fourths of a pound of 
sifted best flour, the whites of eighteen fresh eggs, 
beaten till they stand alone. 

Ice this cake very handsomely. 

Citron Cake. 

One dozen eggs, one pound of flour, one pound 
of butter, one pound of sugar, two pounds of citron, 
two pounds of almonds, two cocoanuts, one glass 
of wine, one teaspoonful of pounded mace. Cut up 



CAKES. 819 

the citron, half chopped fine, and half cut in slices, 
to put in layers. Blanch and beat the almonds, 
peel and grate the cocoanut, then mix as you would 
a pound cake. It requires a little more baking. 

Monntaiii Cake. 

One pound of flour, one pound of sugar, half a 
pound of butter, five eggs, two teaspoonfuls of 
cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of soda, one cup 
of cream, and a teaspoonful of pounded mace. 

MeringDe Cake. 

Beat up the whites of four eggs, add a cup of 
pounded loaf-sugar ; take a nice sponge cake, pour 
a cup of wine all over it, then, after stirring the 
eggs and sugar together^ put it on the top of the 
cake, and bake it until it is a light brown. To be 
eaten with cream. 

Black Cake. 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound of flour. 

One pound of butter. 

Ten eggs. 

Three pounds of raisins. 

One pound of currants. 

Two pounds of almonds. 

One pound of citron. 

One glass of wine. 

One glass of brandy. 

Essence of lemon and spices to your taste. 

Make a light pound cake, and add the fruit and 



820 CAKES, 

flavoring, prepared as before directed in plam 
cake. 

Drop BiBenitB. 

Beat eight eggs till very liglit, then add to them 
twelve oances of flour, and one pound of sugar. 
Beat all well together, drop them on tin sheets, and 
bake them in a quick oven. 

Cream Cake No. X* 

One pound of flour. 

One pound of sugar. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half pint of cream. 

Four eggs. 

One pound of currants or raisins. 

A teaspoonful of soda in the flour ; a teaspoonful 
of cream of tartar, unless your cream is sour ; spice 
or lemon-peel. Bake in small pans. 

Raisin Cake. 

Make a rich pound cake, stone and chop two 
pounds of best raisins, cut them in half, flour them, 
and add them to the cake. 

Citron Cake. 

To a well-made pound cake add-r- 
Three pounds of citron, cut up in small pieces. 
Three pounds of almonds (in the shell), blanched 
and pounded with rose-water. 
Two pounds of grated cocoanut. 
One glass of wine. 
One teaspoonful of mace. 
Bake slowly and carefully. 



CAKSS, 821 



Bride Cake. 

One pound of sugar {whitest loaf). 

One pound of butter. 

One pound of flour. 

Two dozen eggs (the whites only). 

Grate the rind of two oranges, add the juice. 

One wineglass of wine. 

One wineglass of brandy, and a little lemon-juice. 

To be made as pound cake. Fall weight of 
flour. Add the eggs, and half a teaspoonful of 
soda, gradually, the last thing before baking. 

Sweet Wafers. 

Half pound of flour. 

Half pound of butter. 

Half pound of sugar. 

Eight eggs. 

Beat the sugar and butter together, then add 
the yelks of the eggs, and after whipping the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, mix them in 
gradually, with alternate spoonfuls of the flour, 
till all is in. 

Grease the wafer-irons when hot, and bake the 
wafers, then roll them while warm. 

Another kind of nice wafers is made of the batter 
of pound cake, with a little more flour. 

Proviiice Kiss Cakes. 

One pound of flour. 
One pound of sugar. 



322 CAKES. 

One pound of butter. 

The yelks of twelve eggs. 

One glass of wine. 

One teaspoonful of cinnamon. 

Cream the butter and sugar together, then add 
the yelks of the eggs gradually with the flour, then 
the wine and cinnamon, and when the ingredients 
are all well incorporated, turn the dough on a table, 
roll it out till half an inch thick, cut the cakes with 
a cake-cutter, and bake. 

These cakes are generally made when the whites 
are needed for icing or floating islands. 

Sometimes these cakes are themselves iced, and 
slightly browned. They are very nice in this way. 

Lady Bans* 

Three pounds of flour, half pound of white sugar, 
quarter pound of butter, four eggs, a teacupful of 
good yeast, or sponge, in a pint of warm milk. 

Rub the butter in half the flour, beat th^ eggs 
and sugar together, add the yeast and milk, and 
set the batter away to rise. When light, add the 
other half of the flour, and set it to rise again. 
When very light, make the buns into round balls 
with the hands, roll them flat, and let them rise 
again. When light, bake them quickly, and sifl 
white sugar on them. They should not be very 
brown. 

Lafayette Cake* 

Five eggs, three cups of sugar, two cups of mo- 
lasses, two cups of butter, six cups of flour, one cup 
of cream, a teaspoonful of soda. 



CAKES, 828 

Cream the sugar and butter, beat the eggs till 
very light, add them to the sugar aud butter, then 
the molasses, in small portions, alternately with 
the flour, which has been previously sifted, with a 
teaspoonful of soda and a cup of ginger. 

Cheap Tea Cake No. 1. 

One cup of butter, melted, then add three cups 
of sugar. 

Three eggs. 

A cup of milk. 

Three large spoonfuls of strong vinegar, and 
spices, as you like. 

When all these ingredients are well beaten to- 
gether, put a teaspoonful of soda in two quarts of 
flour, sift them, and make up a soft dough with the 
whole of the ingredients above named. 

Roll out your dough in a thin sheet, and cut 
your cakes with a ring or cake-cutter. Bake them 
quickly. 

Rowena Cakes. 

Rub three-fourths of a pound of butter into two 
pounds of sifted flour, then beat three eggs, very 
light, with one pound of sugar, and add one 
and a half teaspoonfuls of soda, and two of cream 
of tartar, or three of sharp vingar, or lemon-juice. 
Flavor with lemon or cinnamon. 

To be rolled out very thin, and the cakes cut in 
any shape you choose. Bake them a light brown. 

Almond Sponge Cake. 

Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet almonds 
with two ounces of bitter almonds. Beat to a stift* 



824 CAKES. 

froth the whites of twelve eggs, then beat the yelks, 
till very thick and light, with a pound of sifted 
loaf-sugar. Mix the almonds first with the yelks 
and sugar, then the whites, in small portions, al- 
ternately with spoonfuls of sifted flour, till you 
have added half a pound. Mix the eggs and flour 
together with a knife, very gently and lightly. Do 
not stir the batter, or it will be heavy. 
Ice this cake smoothly. 

Cocoanat Cake. 

Cream together one 'pound of white sugar and 
half a pound of butter; when light and creamy, add 
a pound of grated cocoanut, ten eggs, beaten very 
light, and half a pound of flour. 

Bake this cake quickly, and ice it smoothly. 
It is a very nice cake. 

Jelly Cake. 

Make a pound cake by receipt in this book, then 
have ready a broad pan, greased with butter with- 
out salt. Make it very hot, and pour the batter 
on as you would for buckwheat cakes ; set the pan 
in an oven, and bake the cakes quickly. When 
done, lay them on a dish, with jelly spread between 
each one. When you have baked sufliicient to make 
a cake of approved proportions, sift white sugar 
over the upper surface, or ice it, as you like. Each 
cake should be as large as a dinner-plate. 

If not perfectly even, trim the edges on a dinner- 
plate, to preserve the form. 



CAKES, 825 

JumMes No* 1 (my Mother's). 

One pound of sugar. 

Three-fourths of a pound of butter. 

Eight eggs, well beaten. 

Flour sufficient to make a soft dough. 

Roll them out thin, cut them with a tin ring, 
and bake them quickly. Flavor with mace or 
lemon. 

Sometimes they are rolled out and made into 
rings. In either case, covered with coarse, pounded, 
white sugar before being baked. 

I prefer these jumbles, because they remind me 
of my childhood. i 

Cream Cakes No. 2. j 

i 

Four cups of sugar, one cup of butter, five cups 
of flour, five eggs, one cup of cream. Stir the 
butter and sugar together, beat the eggs well, add 
them to the butter and sugar, then the cream ; sift 
the fiour, with a teaspoonful of soda, and add them 
gradually to the other ingredients. 

Bake in a moderate, steady heat. 

No. One Cakes* 

Two cups and a half of white sugar, pounded 
and sifted; one cup and a half of butter; seven 
eggs, beaten till very light ; one quart of flour, sifted 
with a teaspoonful of soda ; half a cup of milk, two \ 

teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, or lemon-juice, in 
another half cup of milk. Mix and beat the batter 
well, and bake in small pans, quickly. ; 

28 . 



826 CAKS8. 

Henry Clay Cake. 

Half a pound of butter, creamed with one pound 
of ^ugar. 

Six eggs. 

One pound of flour. 

Ilalf pint of rich, sweet cream. 

The juice and grated rind of a lemon. 

Half a nutmeg. 

One teaspoonful of soda, sifted with the flour. 

If the cream is sour, omit half the juice of the 
lemon. 

Clarence Cake. 

Cream half a pound of butter with a pound of 
sugar, then add the yellis of four eggs ; beat or stir 
them in well ; then beat the four whites to a stiflf 
froth, add them with a pound of flour, and a pint 
of cream, the rind and juice of a lemon, and a small 
teaspoonful of soda. If the cream is sour, omit the 
lemon-juice. A nutmeg improves it. 

Cream Cakes No. 3. 

One pint of rich, sour cream. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

One pound and a quarter of white sugar. 

One teaspoonful of ground cinnamon. 

One teaspoonful of soda, sifted in a pound of 
flour 

Mix all well together, and add more flour, if 
necessary to make a soft dough that will roll out 
to be cut in cakes. If the cream is not very sour, 
or if it is sweet, add lemon-juice or cream of tartar, 
in usual proportions. 



CAKES. 827 

Bake these cakes in a slow oven. They should 
be almost white, and the crust soft. Sift white 
sugar over them before using them. 

These are delicious, as well as beautiful cakes, 
if well managed. 

Ginger Ifnts. 

Sift six pounds of flour, and rub into it one and 
a quarter pound of butter, then add one and a 
quarter pound of sugar; make these into a stiff 
dough, with one quart of molasses, four ounces 
of ginger, one of nutmeg, and one of cinnamon. 
Knead the dough well, then roll it out into a very 
thin sheet, and cut your cakes with a cutter no 
larger than a cent. 

• 

Tea Cakes No. 2. 

Three eggs. 

Five tablespoonfuls of sugar. 
Two tablespoonfuls of butter. 
One light quart of flour. 
One teaspoonful of effervescing powder. 
Cinnamon to your taste. 

EoU out, and cut thin. Bake them in a moder- 
ate oven. 

Bnena Vista Cakes. 

Half pound of sugar. 

Half pound of butter. 

Four eggs. 

Three-fourths of a pound of flour. 

Cream the sugar and butter together well, add 
the yelks of the eggs, then one wineglass of butter- 
milk, with a spoonful of sharp vinegar, or half a 



828 CAKES. 

spoonful of cream of tartar, a glass of brandy, with 
half a teaspoonful of soda, and a glass of wine ; 
then beat the whites of your eggs very light, add 
them, with alternate portions of the flour. 
Bake as pound cake. Flavor as you like. 

Cookies (my Mother's) 

Are made precisely as pound cake, except that 
only three-fourths of a pound of butter are used, 
and suflicient flour added to make a dough which 
can be rolled out on a board. Roll them quite 
thin, and cut them into any shapes you fancy, with 
a jagging-iron. Fry them in boiling lard, sufficient 
to buoy them up well from the bottom of the pau. 
Take them out as soon as of a light-brown color. 
Take care they are not scorched. Drain them well 
from the lard. 

Nutmeg is the usual flavoring for cookies. 

Sponge Cake. 

One dozen eggs 

One pound of sugar. 

The weight of eight eggs in flour. 

Compounded as other sponge cake. 

Flavor with lemon. 

Cop Cake No. 2. 

Six eggs. 

Five cups of flour. 

Three cups of sugar. 

One cup of butter. 

One cup of sour cream. 

One teaspoonful of soda, and the juice of a 



CAKES, 829 

lemon, or as much sharp vinegar as you suppose 
the juice of the lemon would equal. 

Cocoanut Cakes* 

Mix a pound of grated cocoanut with a pound 
of sifted white sugar, then add the whites of six 
eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, a spoonful of flour, a 
little mace, or cinnamon, if you like. Drop the 
cakes from a spoon on tin plates (buttered), and 
bake in a moderate oven. 

Shrewsbury Cakes* 

Four eggs. 

One pound of flour. 

Three-fourths of a pound of sugar. 

Half pound of butter. 

A dessertspoonful of mace or cinnamon. 

Mix well, and make into small cakes, and bake 
on tin sheets. Sift sugar over them when well 
done. 

Jumbles No* 2* 

Mix a pound of sugar with two pounds of flour, 
then pass them through a sieve; beat four eggs 
till very light, add to them a pound of melted but- 
ter, with mace and essence of lemon, then pour the 
mixture into the flour and sugar, and knead the 
whole into a soft dough. Roll pieces about as large 
and long as your forefinger on coarsely pounded 
white sugar, then cross the ends, or you may form 
a ring. Bake them quickly. Do not let them burn. 

28* 



880 CAKE8. 

Tea Cakes No. 3* 

One cup of batter. 

Three cups of sugar. 

Three eggs. 

One cup of milk. 

Four cups of flour, with s teaspoonful of soda 
sifted in it. 

Stir the sugar and butter well together, then 
beat the eggs, and add them with the milk, then 
the flour, and last of all the juice and grated rind 
of a fresh lemon. Bake them in small patty-pans. 

Tea Cakes No. 4. 

One quart of flour, one ^ggy half cup of yeast, 
one cup of milk, one spoonful of butter. Melt 
the butter in milk. 

Mix all well together, and set the dough to rise, 
and when light, make out your tea cakes, let them 
rise a second time, and when very light, bake in a 
moderate oven. 

Cocoanut Sponge Cake* 

One dozen of eggs. 

One pound of powdered white sugar. 

Half a pound of grated cocoanut 

Two spoonfuls of sifted flour. 

Put the grated cocoanut in a dry, clean towel, 
and dip it in boiling water for one minute, then 
wring it as dry as possible; shake it out lightly in 
a shallow dish, and sprinkle it with two spoonfuls 
of sifted flour. 

Beat your yelks and sugar together, whip the 



r 

j 

i 



CAKES. 831 

whites as stiff as possible, add them to the yelks 
and sugar in portions, alternately with the cocoa- 
nut. When mixed, add a little lemon-juice and 
peel ; soda the size of a pea. 

Bake in small, oblong pans quickly, and ice or 
powder them with white sugar. 

Apees* 

Kub together a pound of sugar and half a pound 
of butter, add a glass of wine, and sptces such as 
you like, with caraway seed, and water sufficient 
to make a dough to roll out, and cut with a cake- 
cutter. Bake them in a quick oven till of a light- 
brown color. 

Bath Cakes. 

One pound of sugar. 
One pound of flour. 
Three-fourths of a pound of butter. 
Six eggs, leaving out the whites of four. 
The juice and rind of a lemon. 
Stir all well together, and drop the batter by 
spoonfuls in a hot, greased pan, and bake quickly. 

Spanish Buns. 

Quarter pound of butter. 

One cup of cream. 

Three-fourths of a pound of flour. 

Three large teaspoonfuls of yeast-powders. 

Three spoonfuls of almond- or peach-water. 

Half pound of sugar. 

Pour eggs. 

Let the butter and cream melt together, then 



882 CAKsa. 

add the other ingredients, ending with the floar, 
which must have been sifted with the yeast- 
powders. 

If yon use soda and cream of tartar instead of 
the powders, add the soda to the fioar and the acid 
with the cream. 

Bake in a square pan, and cat in squares. 

Carolina Buns* 

Take a pound of well-risen dough from Premium 
Bread No. 1 of this book, knead into it a good 
spoonful of butter, then place it in a deep bowl, 
and, with the hand, mix in half a pound of sugar, 
and three eggs that have been well beaten; add 
raisins or currants, and the juice and rind of a 
lemon, and last of all a thimbleful of soda. 

Grease a baking-pan, pour in your batter, and 
let it rise a second time; then bake it in a quick 
oven. Cut it into three-inch squares, sift white 
sugar over them, and pile them in your cake-basket 
for tea. 

Sweet Biscnitt* 

A pound of flour. 

Half a pound of sugar. 

Half a pound of butter. 

A glass of wine. 

A little nutmeg. 

Wet it with sweet milk, knead it welly roll out the 
dough, and cut it in shapes to suit yourself. Let 
the cakes be thin. 



OAKES. 333 

Rusk. 

Beat an egg and a spoouful of sugar together 
well, then add a half pint of well-risen yeast ; to 
this add another egg^ well beaten, a large cup of 
sugar, and one of butter; then make up a soft 
dough with sifted flour, let it rise till very light, 
then make out your rusks as you would ring-rolls; 
fill a pan with them, barely touching, and when 
well risen, so that all are joined, and tall in the 
pan, bake them in a quick oven. 

Flavor with nutmeg or cinnamon. 

This makes a very nice loaf cake, with raisins or 
currants. 

Donghnnts 

Are made as rusks, and, when very light, the dough 
should be rolled out in thin sheets, and cut in 
squares, then suffered to rise a second time, and 
fried in hot lard. As soon as you take them from 
the frying-pan, sift fine white sugar over them. 

Naples Biscuits. 

One pound of sugar, sifted fine. 

One pound of flour, sifted and dried. 

One dozen of eggs. 

Mace or nutmeg. 

Beat the yelks and whites of the eggs separately, 
as light as possible, then add the sugar to the 
yelks; when beaten well, add the whites, by spoon- 
fuls, alternately with the flour. Bake them, in 
oblong pans, quickly', of a light brown, and sift 
white sugar over them before using them. 



884 CAKsa. 

MacarooBs. 

Blanch and beat, in a marble mortar, three- 
fourths of a pound of sweet almonds and one- 
fourth of a pound of bitter almonds, shelled and 
blanched, .mix them with a pound of powdered 
white sugar, then beat to a stiff froth the whites 
of six eggs, add them, by little at a time, to the 
almonds and sugar, till of a proper consistency to 
roll in the hands little, round balls, about the size 
of a pigeon's egg, then flatten them, lay them in 
pans over which sugar has been sifted, and bake 
them in a slow oven, }}aving brushed them over 
with white of egg to make them smooth. 

Oround-peas make very nice macaroons. 

Ginger Snaps. 

One pint of molasses. 

One cup of sugar. 

One cup of butter. 

One cup of lard. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Four tablespoonfuls of ginger. 

Add flour sufficient to make a moderately stiff 
dough. Roll the dough out very thin, and cut 
your snaps with a ring no larger than a cent. 

Molasses Pound Cake* 

One cup of butter. 
Two cups of sugar. 
Two cups of molasses. 
One cup of milk. 



CAKES. 886 

Six eggs. 

One pound of flour. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Melt the butter in the milk over a few warm 
embers, then add the sugar, molasses, and eggs, 
the latter beaten very light. Sift the flour and* 
soda together, and mix them lightly with the above 
ingredients. You may add raisins or currants, if 
you like. Bake in a brisk oven. 

This cake makes a very nice dessert with cream 
sauce. 

Molasses Cake* 

One cup of molasses, — an ordinary teacup. 

One cup of sugar. 

One cup of butter. 

One cup of cream. 

Six cups (or a sifted quart) of flour. 

One teaspoonful of soda, small. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar.* 

Spices and fruits as you choose. 

Four eggs. 

Stir the sugar and butter together, add the yelks 
of the eggs, then the molasses, and then the cream 
and flour in small portions, alternately, till all the 
flour is in, and last of all add the whites of the 
eggs, beaten to a stift' froth. The soda should be 
sifted in the flour, and the cream of tartar added 
to the cream or milk. If the cream is sour, put 



* If the cream is sour, use only one spoonful of cream of 
tartar. 



886 CAKS8. 

half the quantity of cream of tartar. Yon may 
bake this cake in a large pan or in small patties. 

Let it bake in a moderate oven, steadily. Try it 
with a straw before removing from the oven. If 
you take it out before it is done, it will fall, and 
never rise again. 

Preserved Ginger Cakes. 

Take a quart of New Orleans molasses, and boil 
it with a large cup of good brown sugar, then, 
while it is hot, add a pound of fresh butter, six 
well-beaten eggs, and a pint of East India pre- 
served ginger, cut up fine, with a cupful of the 
syrup. 

Pour all these ingredients into the middle of a 
tray of sifted flour, and knead them into a pliable 
dough that will roll out smoothly to cut. Cut them 
in round cakes, and bake them hroion in a moderate 
oven. 

These cakes are good enough for a queen. 

Hager's Cakes. 

Boil a quart of molasses down to a pint, add 
one-fourth of a pound of butter, four spoonfuls of 
pounded ginger, and a little mace. Make these 
ingredients into a pliable dough, roll it out very 
thin, cut your cakes in oblong squares, cross them 
with your knife (the back of it), and bake them in 
a quick oven. 

These cakes are excellent. 



CAKES, 337 

Gingerbread. 

Three-fourths of a pound of brown sugar in a 
quart of molasses. 

One pound of melted butter. 

Two spoonfuls of pounded ginger. 

One teaspoonful of pounded cloves. 

Of these make a moderately stiff dough with flour 
in which has been mingled, before sifting, a tea- 
spoonful of soda or saleratus. Roll out the dough 
thick, and cut in large, oblong squares. 

New Year's Cake. 

Mix a pound of sugar with three-quarters of a 
pound of butter, then add six well-beaten eggs, a 
glass of brandy in which has soaked for an hour a 
spoonful of coriander seed. 

Roll the dough out thin, and cut your cakes. 
Bake them quickly. 

Another, — Rub two and a half pounds of sugar 
into one and a quarter pound of butter, then wet 
up five pounds of flour with the sugar, butter, 
half a tumbler of water, and half a tumbler of 
brandy in which two spoonfuls of coriander seed 
have been soaked half an hour. Knead well. 
Roll out your dough thick on a table, and cut 
out your cakes. Stamp them with fancifultigures. 
Bake them in a moderate oven of a very light 
color. If you find they are browning too much, 
throw a clean paper over them. 

This cake is delicious, and will keep for six 
months. 

29 



888 CAKES. 

Negro Ginger Cakes. 

Sift three quarts of flour with three spoonfuls of 
ginger and three teaspoonfuls of soda or saleratus ; 
melt half a pound of lard with a quart of molasses, 
mix these with the flour, and knead it well. Cut it 
in squares, or round cakes, and bake them quickly. 

Brittle Ginger Cakes. 

One cup of sugar — one and a half will improve 
them. 

One cup of molasses. 

One cup of butter. 

Four eggs, beaten light. 

Two spoonfuls of ginger. 

One spoonful of cinnamon. 

Mix all these ingredients well, and add flour suf- 
ficient to make a pliable dough that will roll out 
thin. Cut them round, and bake them in a quick 
oven. At first they will be crisp; if you keep them 
several days, they will be soft and tender, breaking 
at a touch. 

Soft Gingerbread. 

Three cups of molasses. 

One cup of sour milk. 

One cup of butter or lard, or half a cup of each. 

Two tablespoonfuls of ginger. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

Flour suflicient to make a batter such as for a 
pound cake. 

Bake in shallow pans, carefully, and when a 
straw can pierce it and come out dry, the ginger- 
bread is done. 



THE SUPPER.TABLE. 839 



THE SUPFEB-TABLE. 

Now, having ample and excellent receipts, jou 
may provide as simple or as elegant a supper-table 
as you please. 

If your company should number one hundred, 
and you have ample space, set two tables. One for 
meats and another for confectioneries. 

Arrange your table after the pattern of your 
dinner- and dessert-table. Ornament it profusely 
with flowers, pyramids of cakes, ices, fruits, and 
so forth. 

A candied tree, on a large iced cake, in the 
center of the table, is beautiful. 

A meat supper should consist of a cold round of 
Alamode beef, ham, chicken salad, oysters, roasted 
turkeys or other fowls, smoked tongues, lobster, 
celery in glasses, rasped rolls, sandwiches, crackers, 
biscuits, etc.; wines if you choose, but take care 
the profusion is not too abundant, as you should, 
as a Christian entertainer, never provide for ex- 
cess in so dangerous an article. 

Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, 
do all for the glory of God. This can be done in 
all things where there is a will. 



840 WIlfES. CORDIALS, ETC 



WIHE8, 00BDIAL8, ETO. 

Cherry Boonce* — A Core for DiarrhoMi* 

Fill a jug with ripe wild cherries, and pour in 
French braudj till it will wet the cork. Stop it 
tightly y and set it away for six months. Pour oft* 
the brandy in bottles, well corked, for use. 

A spoonful of the bounce in three spoonfuls 
of water, with sugar and a little nutmeg, will 
effect a cure, if administered two or three times 
a day to a child. Do not give all at once. 

If an adult, two spoonfuls will be sufficient. Be 
careful not to make the beverage too strong. 

Cherry Boonce. — A Cordial* 

Fill a jug with cherries (half morellas and half 
wild cherries), then with brandy. Allow it to re- 
main, well corked, for six months; then boil a 
thick syrup of loaf-sugar, with spices in propor- 
tion, agreeable to your taste. When the syrup is 
cold, fill your bottles two-thirds full with the cherry 
brandy, and add the spiced syrup till .the bottles 
are full. Cork them well. 

Blackberry Wine* 

Have your berries gathered in the morning, and 
pounded to a pulp, then to every gallon of berries 
add a quart of boiling water. Strain the berries, 
and to every gallon of the juice add two pounds 
of white sugar. 



WINESy CORDIALS, ETC, 341 

Fill a clean, soand cask, place it on its side on 
two pieces of scantling in your cellar, leaving the 
bung open for the wine to ferment and work over. 
In two or three weeks it will cease to ferment. 
Cork it lightly, and leave it till December. It would 
be better to remain a year. 

Another receipt for blackberry wine is to add 
three pounds of sugar instead of two ; but adhere 
to the above receipt in all other respects. This is 
stronger and better. 

Wild Grape Wine. 

The small, black, wild grape makes an excellent 
wine by the above receipt, but three pounds of 
sugar are necessary. 

Catawba Wine 

Bequires three pounds of sugar. 

Skappemong Wine 

Needs only two pounds of sugar. 

The Elderberry 

Makes an excellent wine. Particularly is it valua- 
ble for invalids and persons of feeble health as a 
tonic. Every family should have it. 

Make it as blackberry wine, except that two 
quarts of water should be added to two quarts of 
berries. 

29* 



842 WINES, CORDIALS, ETC. 

Blackberry Cordial* 

Pound and strain a gallon of blackberries, and 
to every pint of juice add three-fourths of a pound 
of sugar (loaf), and to every two quarts of the 
juice add one-fourth of an ounce of mace, allspice, 
cinnamon, and cloves (whole or slightly bruised). 
Boil these ingredients to a rich syrup, and fill 
bottles with equal portions of French brandy and 
blackberry syrup. Bottle, and cork well. 

This is almost a certain remedy for diarrhoea and 
dysentery. And for a delicate child, it should be 
used as a daily beverage, made with the cordial, 
water, and sugar. 

Ratafia. 

One gallon of best brandy, one quart of Madeira 
and one of Frontenac wine, one pint of orange-flower 
water, one pint of rose-water, three pounds of loaf- 
sugar, and twelve hundred peach kernels, and after 
having bruised and blanched half of them, put the 
brandy on them in a demijohn, and let it remain 
two or three months, shaking it occasionally, then 
add the other ingredients, and as soon as the sugar 
is dissolved, filter through a double blotting-paper, 
and bottle it. 

Persico. 

Take the peel of two dozen West India oranges, 
cut in very small pieces, put it in a gallon of water 
with ten pounds of loaf-sugar ; boil fifteen or twenty 
minutes, skim until perfectly clear, and, while hot, 
add one gallon of best French brandy (not colored). 
Shake it repeatedly. In a fortnight it will be ready 
for use. 



WINES, CORDIALS, ETC. 848 



Lemonade. 



Cut into thin slices six fresh large lemons, put 
them in a bowl or pitcher, and with a wooden spoon 
crush out all the juice, then add a pint of white 
sugar and two quarts of ice- water. 

Ponch 

Is made in the same way, with the addition 6f a 
pint of good whisky or brandy. Some persons 
like it hot. 

JHint-jalep* 

Wash and pick clean a handful of fresh mint, 
put it in a tumbler, and after bruising it a little 
with the spoon, fill the tumbler not quite half full 
of brandy, and add an equal quantity of water, 
iced. Sugar td the taste. 

Negas of Port Wine. 

One pint of wine, one sliced lemon, a cup of 
white sugar, and a quart of boiling water. Grate 
half a nutmeg on it. 



844 £SSENC£S. 



ESSEHOES. 

Essence of Ginger. 

Fresh, green ginger is best, if it can be had. 
This should be grated fine. If dry, it should be 
pounded in a mortar slightly. 

To a pound of ginger put a pint of brandy, with 
the grated rinds of six lemons. Put the bottle in 
the sun for a week, then pour off the brandy, and 
fill the bottle with a pint of fresh brandy. Keep 
this brandy on the ginger for two weeks, and then 
pour it into the bottle with the brandy first poured 
off. Cork the bottle tight. A teaspoonful of this 
essence will be sufficient to flavor a ginger pound 
cake. 

Essences may be made from all spices or sweet 
herbs by the above receipt. To a quart of brandy 
put three ounces of spice or ginger. 

Herb Essences for Soop* 

Pill a large-mouthed bottle with equal portions 
of marjoram, lemon, thyme, savory, eschalots, 
celery seed, and lemon-peel, then fill up the bot- 
tle with brandy. 

Some employ vinegar instead of brandy. 

Celery Essence* 

Steep an ounce of celery seed in half a pint of 
good brandy. Keep it well stopped. 

A teaspoonful will flavor a tureen of soup. 



F8SENCES, 845 

Eschalot Essence. 

Peel, and cut up into small pieces, a dozen heads 
of eschalots, or pound them in a mortar ; put them 
in wide-mouthed bottles, and fill them with brandy 
or strong vinegar; let them remain a week, and 
then pour off' the brandy or vinegar into a fresh 
bottle, and it is ready for use. A teaspoonful will 
flavor a gravy-boat of sauce, and will be found 
preferable to onions. 

Essence of Vanilla. 

Split up half a dozen vanilla beans, put them in 
a bottle with half a pint of brandy. This is all 
that is necessary. Cork it tightly. 

Lavender Compound. 

Pick off" a pint of lavender flowers just before 
they bloom, put them in a quart bottle, fill the 
bottle with French brandy, and add mace, cloves, 
cinnamon, and orange-peel, each a teaspoonful, 
with a pinch of cochineal. Let these ingredients 
remain together for three weeks, and strain the 
liquor into another bottle, and cork it well. Pour 
a gill of water on the lavender blossoms, allow it 
to remain a day, and add it to the second bottle 
after straining as before. 



846 CANNING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



OANVIVO FBUITS AVD VEGETABLES. 

These should be fully ripe, without blemish, 
especially of decay. 

In the first place, wash them and pick them 
clean, put them in the cans quite full, and having 
put on the covers loosely, set the cans in kettles 
of cold water over a moderate fire ; let the water 
boil gently, then remove, the cans, close them 
tightly, and set them in a cool place. 

Glass cans are much used now; but as these 
admit light, which is supposed to injure the fruit, 
they should be placed at once in a dark closet 

Fruit keeps better without sugar, well sealed 
and kept cool. 

Vegetables should be boiled longer than fruit, 
especially corn, peas, and beans. 



TO DRY FIGS, CHERRIES, DAMSONS, ETC. 347 



TO DBT riOS, OHEBBIES, DAMSONS, ETO. 

Scald them in syrup of common brown sugar, 
and put them in dishes in the sun. Keep the 
syrup, and repeat the scalding for two or three 
days, then put the dishes of fruit in the stove, after 
dinner, when the fire is low. This will very nearly 
complete the drying. After this, place them on 
the highest shelf in your pantry, cover them with 
a thin cloth for about two weeks, when you may 
dip them in sugar and water ; place them in the 
sun again for a few days, and then pack them in 
boxes or jars. 

A coating of white sugar will be iformed on 
them, which will cause them to resemble the im- 
ported dried figs, etc. 

To Dry Tomatoes. 

Slice half-ripe tomatoes, and dip them in boiling 
syrup, then put them in the sun for a few days to 
dry, under thin muslin. When dry, pack them in 
jars. In winter, stew them as you usually do fresh 
tomatoes, with water, bread, butter, pepper, and 
salt. 

Okra, Dried. 

Cut crosswise, string on a thread, and dry your 
okra in the shade. The sun will spoil it all. 

But the best way to keep okra is packed down 
with layers of salt. Soak them a little when you 
wish to use them, and omit salt in your soup or 
gumbo. 



348 MISCELIAALOUS RECEIPTS. 



MIBOELLAIVEOXJB BE0EIPT8. 

Diarrhoea. 

Cut up a dozen green persimmons with an ounce 
of red oak bark, boil these in a pint of water till 
reduced one -half, then add one ounce of gum 
arabic and half a pound of white sugar. Boil the 
mixture with a teacupful of the syrup from black- 
berry preserves* down to a stilf candy. Sift coarse 
white sugar on a clean sheet of white paper, and 
drop the candy on it in the form of lozenges. Let 
the patient eat three or four each day. 

This receipt is from*a knowing friend. 
Diet. — Rice flummery. Drink gum-arabic water 
and toast-water. 

Core for a bad Cough, Weak LuDgs, etc. 

One ounce of lignum-vitae sawdust. 

One ounce of hops. 

One ounce of liquorice. 

Boil these ingredients in three pints of pure 
water to one pint. Strain the liquor. Pour half 
a pint of water on the contents of the strainer so 
that all the strength of the ingredients is obtained ; 
add this water to the pint of strong liquor. Boil 
this with a pound and a half of white sugar and 
one ounce of gum arabic down to a stiflt* candy. 
Pull it out in cords, cut them in lengths of a finger, 

* Take care that the preserves have not fermented. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 849 

and let the patient keep one about him, and eat it 
whenever the cough is troublesome, at all events 
three sticks per day. 

If the lungs are affected, put an ounce of lignum- 
vitae in a pint of brandy or good whisky. Rub 
the chest, sides, and between the shoulders, with a 
flannel wet with the liquor, three times a day. 

Care for Scrofula. 

Tea of dried whortleberries, taken regularly 
through the day for three or four weeks, has been 
known to cure entirely this disease. And why 
not internal cancers? 

Osborne Syrup* 

Half ounce of rhubarb. 

Half ounce of annise seed. 

Half ounce of liquorice root. 

Half ounce of best manna. 

Simmer these ingredients slowly in a porcelain 
stewpan, with three parts of a pint of water, till re- 
duced one third. Strain the liquor, and while it is 
cooling burn one gill of best brandy in a cup with 
a tablespoon ful of mixed spices, say a little mace, 
cloves, cinnamon, and allspice; place a wire frame 
or a few nails over the cup, and on them pile up 
four ounces of lumps of loaf-sugar; set fire to the 
brandy, and burn down all the sugar. This will 
make a rich syrup. Strain it and add it to the liquor 
previously boiled. After having poured all into a 
clean dry bottle, add to it half an ounce of paregoric 
and thirty grains of salts of tartar. 

30 



850 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

This sjrup, if administered in the early stages 
of diarrhcBa, will arrest it at once, though some- 
times, the stomach being acid, it may be neces- 
sary to administer a small dose of magnesia. This 
syrup should be administered three times a day. 
To an adult a large tablespoonful, and to a child a 
teaspoon ful. And even when the disease is ar- 
rested I give it every night on going to bed for 
several nights. It is simple and innocent. 

In 1838, when the Asiatic cholera first made its 
appearance in this country, the author of this work 
enjoyed the unspeakable pleasure of curing several 
patients with Osborne syrup : spirits of turpentine 
being applied externally to the whole surface of the 
body. 

This syrup is no quackery, but was originally 
made after a prescription of an eminent physician 
who practiced in the family of the author of this 
work. 

Hunter's Bitters. 

Four ounces of gentian root. 

Three ounces of orange-peel. 

One and a half ounces of cloves. 

Two ounces of cinnamon. 

Half ounce of cardamom. 

Two ounces of fennel seed. 

Cut these ingredients up in fine pieces, and 
bruise them in a marble mortar; then put them 
in a jug and add a gallon of best Cognac brandy. 
Place it in the sun for a few days, shaking it fre- 
quently. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 351 

These receipts are in only one or two cases 
original; they are gathered from any reliable 
source, with the hope that they may serve a good 
purpose in emergencies, where persons are out of 
the way of medical advice or scientific directions. 

Remedy for the Bite of Rattlesnakes. 

The following receipt is claimed to be an un- 
failing remedy, and has been tried with success in 
two instances where soldiers were bitten by rattle- 
snakes, on the Plains, which came under the 
writer's own immediate observation, and is now 
sent to the journal for the purpose of making it 
known to the large portion of our army now serv- 
ing on the Plains, and other places where the rat- 
tlesnake is found. 

Ribron's antidote to the poison of the rattle- 
snake: 

Iodide of potassium, four grains ; hydrarg. chlor. 
corros. (corrosive sublimate), two grains ; bromine, 
five drachms. 

Ten drops of this mixture, diluted with a table- 
spoonful or two of brandy or wine or whisky, con- 
stitute a dose, to be repeated if necessary. It 
must be kept in glass-stoppered vials, well secured, 
as the air will afltect it. This is an invaluable 
remedy. — Army and Navy JoumaL 

Another, — Whortleberry-juice applied to the bite, 
and a decoction taken internally, is a certain cure. 



852 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Hydrophobia. 

Pennyroyal leaves pulverized and mixed with 
honey. Give six tablespoonfuls a day, with sweet 
oil, for three days, and then no fears should remain. 

Bromide of potassium is also a remedy for this 
poison. 

Another. — Immediately wash the wound with 
warm vinegar or water, then wipe it dry, and pour 
on the wound a few drops of hydrochloric acid. 
Mineral acids neutralize animal poison. 

To prevent dogs from going mad, mix a little 
sulphur in their food in the spring of the year. 

Core for a bad Cold or Cough. 

Slice two or three onions in a bowl with alternate 
layers of sugar. Let them remain till a syrup is 
formed, and take a spoonful every hour through 
the day. 

This is an excellent remedy. 

To Care a Cancer. 

Pound up a handful of sorrel leaves, stew them 
with lard, and apply the poultice to the cancer, 
taking care to protect the well flesh by means of a 
large piece of adhesive plaster with a round hole 
cut in the center just sufficiently large to expose 
the cancer. This poultice should remain twenty- 
four hours. 

Strong potash, applied in the same way, it is 
said, will destroy a cancer so that it can be pulled 
out as you would pull up a parsnip from the 
ground. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 3^8 

Care for Asthma. 

Leaves of the Jamestown weed, or stramonium, 
dried in the shade, and saturated with a strong 
solution of saltpeter, then suffered to dry again, 
if smoked so as to inhale the fumes, will relieve 
the sufferer from asthma almost immediately. 
Gather the leaves before frost. 

To Care Dyspepsia. 

Eat two baked apples (with skins on) for tea, 
and nothing else till breakfast, then a cup of coffee 
or tea, and dry toast, with thin sliced old ham. 
For dessert, at dinner, two baked apples, as for 
tea the night before. Walk after dinner. 

Having witnessed the good effects of this remedy, 
the author has no hesitation in recommending it. 

Care for Dysentery. 

A tablespoonful of sweet oil with twenty-five 
drops of laudanum. 

One dose is often sufficient. 

Another. — A glass of hot punch with plenty of 
lemon-juce. 

Another. — A strong decoction of the strawberry 
plant, leaves and roots. 

Another. — ^Dress cucumbers with vinegar, salt, 
and black pepper, and drink the vinegar. 

To Care Barns or Frostbitten Fingers or Feet, etc* 

Make a poultice of Indian-meal, and cover the 
surface of it with green-tea leaves. 

30* 



854 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

To Care a Tetter. 

Take prickly ash bark, raint, root and tops, to- 
bacco, tar, and pokeroot ; stew all these together 
in hog's lard; strain it, and, when nearly cold, 
sprinkle in a little sulphur. 

Wash the tetter with vinegar and saltpeter b3fore 
applying the ointment. Do this daily till well. 

Before each application, wash the head with 
warm Castile soap. 

A Sea-captain's Remedy for Cholera* 

Mr. G. S. Peabody, master of the packet-ship 
Isaac Wright, has written a letter giving an ac- 
count of the treatment of cholera cases which oc- 
curred on his vessel in January last, during a trip 
from Liverpool to New York. Captain Peabody 
says that within forty-eight hours after sailing, 
cholera appeared, and in ten days twenty-seven pas- 
sengers had died of it, though they were treated 
" by the book." The captain then applied a method 
of treatment that had been recommended by his 
predecessor in command, and did not lose another 
patient on that voyage or since. The remedy was 
this: A tablespoonful of salt and a tablespoonful 
of red pepper in a half pint of hot water. The 
captain says he was himself attacked by violent 
cholera, with cramps, etc., but the medicine '' car- 
ried him through." He adds: "The medicine 
acts quickly as an emetic, say in one or two 
minutes. It brings up a very offensive matter, 
which sticks like glue. It was given, among 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 855 

others, to one old woman of eighty-four years of 
age, who was on deck. Though weak, of course,, she 
was well the very next day* I have known it to be 
successfully used on board their ships by at least a 
dozen shipmasters besides myself. Its use is quite 
general in Liverpool, where even some of the 
regular doctors find it to their advantage to resort 
to it. Provided with this simple receipt I no longer 
consider the cholera an unmanageable disease." 

Cure for the Small-Pox. 

The following prescription is vouched for by the 
Eastport (Me.) Sentinel^ as a cure for the small-pox : 

Give to the patient two tablespoonfuls of a 
mixture of hop yeast and water, sweetened with 
molasses, so as to be palatable, equal parts of each, 
three times a day. Children under twelve years 
of age should take two teaspoonfuls three times 
a day. 

Diet. — Boiled rice and milk, and toasted bread 
moistened with water, and without butter. Eat no 
meat. Give catnip tea as often as the patient is 
thirsty. Give physic when necessary. 

If the above treatment is strictly followed, no 
marks of small-pox will remain. 

Prevention of LocKfaw. 

Peach leaves pounded, and applied immediately 
to a wound caused by sticking a nail in the foot or 
hand, will prevent lockjaw. 



856 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Another Remedy for Small- Pox. 

A correspondent of the Stockton (Oal.) Herald 
writes as follows: 

I herewith append a receipt, which has been 
used to my knowledge in hundreds of cases. It 
will cure the small-pox though the pittings are 
filling. When Jenner discovered cow-pox in 
England, the world of science hurled an ava- 
lanche of fame upon his head, but when the 
most scientific school of medicine in the world — 
that of Paris — published this receipt as a panacea 
for sraall-pox, it passed unheeded. It is as unfail- 
ing as fate, and conquers in every instance. It is 
harmless when taken by a well person. It will 
also cure scarlet fever. Here is the receipt as I 
have used it, and cured my children of scarlet 
fever ; here it is as I have used it to cure the small- 
pox ; when learned physicians said the patient must 
die, it cured : Sulphate of zinc, one grain ; fox- 
glove (digitalis), one grain ; half a teaspoonfal of 
sugar; mix with two tablespoonfuls of water. 
"When thoroughly mixed, add four ounces of 
water. Take a spoonful every hour. Either dis- 
ease will disappear in twelve hours. For a child, 
smaller doses, according to age. If counties would 
compel their physicians to use this, there would be 
no need of pesthouses. If you value advice and 
experience, use this for that terrible disease. 

Important Medical Discovery. 

A remarkable medical discovery has recently 
been made in the treatment of deafness, by Pro- 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, 857 

feasor Scott, of the New York Medical University, 
by which the most apparently hopeless cases are 
radically cured. The method consists in introduc- 
ing atomized oxide of phenyl directly into the 
cavity of the tympanum. No unpleasant sensa- 
tions are produced, and a feeling of clearness 
seems to follow the application. Numerous cases 
are daily treated successfully at the university. 

Diphtheria. 

Dr. Revillout, in a paper presented to the French 
Academy of Medicine, asserts that lemon-juice is 
one of the most efficacious medicines that can be 
applied in diphtheria, and relates that when he was 
a dresser in the hospital, his own life was saved 
by this timely application. He got three dozen 
lemons and gargled his throat with the juice, swal- 
lowing a little at a time, in order to act on the 
more deep-seated parts. Dr. R. has noted eleven 
cases of complete success obtained by this method 
of treatment. 

The Lodgawcan be Cared. 

An experiment which has just taken place in 
one of the Paris hospitals appears to establish con- 
clusively that lockjaw can be cured by means of 
the curare poison. A young man, twenty-four 
years of age, having had one of his toes carried off 
by a musket -shot, considerable injury having at 
the same time been inflicted on the adjoining ones 
by the projectile, was seized with lockjaw four 
days after the accident. Dr. Chassaignac (who 
supplies this account of the case) was called in, 



868 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

wbcn the patient was already far gone. A potion, 
consisting of one hundred and twenty grammes 
of tea, with ten centigrammes of curare, was ad- 
ministered in the dose of one tablespoonful per 
hour; at the same time the wound, which was 
much jaggedy and emitting a fetid pus, was moist- 
ened with a solution of twenty centigrammes (four 
grains) of curare in two hundred grammes of dis- 
tilled water. Bottles of warm water were put into 
the patient's bed. The first spoonful of the potion 
produced some effect at the end of an hour, and as 
the treatment went on so did the state of the 
patient improve. The solution of curare used for 
the local application was gradually strengthened to 
thirty, and at length to forty centigrammes of the 
poison ; its proportion in the potion was also in- 
creased to fifteen, and then to twenty-five centi- 
grammes. At the end of six days the patient was 
out of danger. 

Scarlatina and Measles. 

Mr. Witt, member of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, has published a pamphlet in which he states 
that carbonate of ammonia is a specific for the cure 
of scarlet fever and measles. He cites Dr. Pearl, 
of Liverpool, and other practitioners, who have 
never lost a case, out of hundreds, since adopting 
this remedy. Two drachms of the bicarbonate of 
ammonia are dissolved in five ounces of water, and 
two tablespoonfuls of the solution given every two, 
three, or four hours, according to the urgency of 
the symptoms. No acid drink must be taken, but 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 359 

only water, or toast and water. The system is to 
be moved by a dose of calomel, if necessary. The 
room must be well ventilated, but the patient pro- 
tected from the slightest cold or draught. Gargles 
should also be employed for cleaning the throat. 
The ammonia, it is said, counteracts the poison 
which causes scarlatina, and also acts on the system 
by diminishing the frequency and at the same time 
increasing the strength of the pulse. As so many 
children die from these diseases in this country, 
this remedy ought to receive a fair trial from the 
profession. 

Alleged Certain Care for the Bite of a Mad Dog. 

The editor of the Kent NewSy published at Ches- 
tertown, Md., in giving publicity to the following 
article, says " it may be proper to state, for the in- 
formation of persons who are not acquainted with 
Mr. Dyre, that he is a highly respectable and in- 
telligent farmer, residing near Galena, in this 
county.'* 

Elecampane is a plant well known to most per- 
sons, and is to be found in many of our gardens. 
Immediately after being bitten, take one and a half 
ounces of the root of the plant, — the green root is 
perhaps preferable, but the dried will answer, and 
may be found in our drug stores, and was used 
by me, — slice or bruise, put into a pint of fresh 
milk, boil down to a half pint, strain, and when 
cold drink, fasting for at least six hours afterward. 
The next morning, fasting, repeat the dose, using 
two ounces of the root. On the third morning take 



360 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

another dose prepared as the last, and this will be 
sufficient. It is recommended that after each dose 
nothing be eaten for at least six hours. 

I have a son who was bitten by a mad dog eigh- 
teen years ago, and four other children in the neigh- 
borhood were also bitten ; they took the above dose, 
and are alive and well at this day. And I have 
known a iiumber of others who were bitten that 
applied the same remedy. 

It is supposed that the root contains a principle 
which, being taken up by the blood in its circula- 
tion, counteracts or neutralizes the deadly effects 
of the virus of the hydrophobia. 

I feel so much confidence in this simple remedy 
that I am willing you should give my name in con- 
nection with this statement. 

Franklin Dyrb. 

Cure for Drunkenness. 

Sulphate of iron, five grains; magnesia, ten 
grains ; peppermint-water, eleven drachms ; spirits 
of nutmeg, one drachm. A wineglassful twice 
a day. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 361 



Poisons and Antidotes* 

The following list of antidotes is given as re- 
liable in cases of poisoning, to which all are in 
danger of being subjected some time, when, per- 
haps, no medical skill or experienced advice is 
within reach. It would be well for every family 
to have something like this, which they can turn 
to at a moment's warning. 

The following are some of the more common 
poisons and the remedies most likely to be at 
hand in case of need. The directions may be old, 
but in case you happen to get a good, strong dose 
of poison down, you will not object to a cure on 
account of age. 

Acids. — These cause great heat and a sensation 
of burning pain from the mouth down to the stom- 
ach. Eemedies : magnesia, soda, pearlash, or soap 
dissolved in water, then use the stomach-pump or 
an emetic. 

Alkalies, — Best remedy is vinegar. 

Ammonia. — ^Remedy : lemon-juice or vinegar. 

Alcohol. — First cleanse the stomach by an emetic, 
then dash cold water on the head, and ammonia 
(spirits of hartshorn). 

Arsenic. — ^Remedies: in the first place evacuate 
the stomach, then give the white of eggs, lime- 

81 



862 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, 

water, or chalk and water, charcoal, and a prep- 
aration of iron, particularly hydrate. 

Leadj WfiKe Lead, and Sugar of Lead. — ^Remedies : 
alum, cathartics, Buch as cantor oil and Epsom salts, 
specially sulphuric acid lemonade. 

Charcoal. — In poisons by carbonic gas, remove 
the patient into the open air, dash cold water on 
the head and body, and stimulate the nostrils and 
lungs by hartshorn, at the same time rubbing the 
chest briskly. 

Corrosive Sublimate. — Give the white of eggs, 
freely mixed with water, or give wheat flour and 
water, or soap and water, freely. 

Creasote. — White of eggs and emetics. 

Belladonna {^Night Henbane). — Give an emetic, then 
plenty of vinegar and water, or lemonade. 

Mushrooms^ when Poisonous. — Give an emetic, 
plenty of vinegar and water, with doses of ether, 
if handy. 

Nitrate of Silver {Lunar Caustic). — Give a strong 
solution of common salt, and then emetics. 

Opium, — ^First give a strong emetic of mustard 
and water, then strong coffee and acid drinks; 
dash cold water on the head. 

Laudanum. — Same as opium. 

Nux Vomica. — First give emetics, then brandy. 

Oxalic Acid (frequently mistaken for Epsom 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 363 

salts). — Remedies : chalk, magnesia, or soap and 
water, and other soothing drinks. 

Prussia Add. — When there is time, administer 
chlorine in the shape of soda and lime ; hot brandy 
and water, hartshorn, and turpentine are also 
useful. 

Snake Bites, etc, — Apply immediately strong harts- 
horn, and take internally; also give sweet oil and 
stimulate freely; apply a ligature tight above the 
part bitten, and then apply a cupping-glass. 

Tartar Mnetic. — Give large doses of tea made of 
galls, Peruvian bark, or white oak bark. 

Verdigris. — Plenty of white of eggs and water. 

White Vitriol. — Give the patient plenty of milk 
and water. 

Melted Lard. — An antidote for strychnine, nux 
vomica, wild cherry, and nightshade. 

Tea of the Sensitive Plant for the bite of a rattle- 
snake. 



364 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



Soaps* 

TwENTT'FiVB pounds of clean tallow or lard. If 
yoa have not these, use kitchen grease, that is, the 
skimmings from pots or what is left from frying, or 
refuse grease of any kind. Boil this in weak lye 
to clean it. Put your grease in a pot or kettle, let 
it melt, and begin to fry, then add one gallon of 
weak lye, gradually, stirring it all the while ; after 
it boils awhile add another gallon of weak lye. 
Let it boil again, then throw in two or three gal- 
lons of strong lye that will bear up an Qgg. Con- 
tinue to boil your soap briskly, adding strong lye 
till no more grease appears on the surface, and the 
mixture becomes transparent and thick. As soon 
as these conditions arise, pour in gradually a quart 
of fine salt. Take your pot from the fire, and let it 
remain till next day, when the hard soap will need 
cutting out, washed from the crude lye below it, 
and again melted, poured into a square frame or 
box, and suffered to remain till cold, when you 
may cut it into bars, and dry it for use. 

If you wish soft soap, do not add any salt If 
you wish pure, mild soap, melt it a third time, 
with rain-water, which will cause all the harsh 
quality to leave the soap, and sink with the water 
below where the soap is cold and hard. 

Soap Mixture for Washing. 

Soft soap, four pounds. 

Kefined borax, one-fourth of a pound. 

Common salt, three ounces. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 365 

Boil together slowly to a cake. Keep the top 
separate from the sediment for the fine clothes. 
The remainder will do for common clothes. 

Wet the clothes thoroughly, rub the grease and 
dirty spots well with the soap. Boil the clothes 
half an hour in strong soapsuds. Hinse in three 
clear waters. Common soap will do to boil with. 

Honey Soap* 

Half ounce of balsam of fir. 

Half ounce of white wax. 

Quarter pint of honey. 

Half ounce of white rosin. 

Ten pounds of purified soap. 

Melt these ingredients thoroughly, and mix them 
well, then add a quarter of an ounce of essence of 
cloves, cinnamon, bergamot. 

Pour it in moulds, or in a box. Cut it in cakes 
to suit, when cold. 

Soda Soap* 

Four pounds of tallow, oil, or lard. 

One pound of caustic or unslacked lime. 

Two pounds of soda. 

Half ounce of beeswax. 

Quarter ounce of rosin, with a thimbleful of 
borax. 

Put the lime and soda in a vessel of convenient 
kind, and pour on them six quarts of boiling water ; 
stir it up well, and then allow it to settle thoroughly. 
In the mean time put your grease on to melt. As 
soon as the lime is settled, pour off the clear lye, 

31* 



866 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

and add a gallon of water again to the lime. Allow 
it to settle, when pour off the lye as before in a 
separate vessel from the first lye. Strain both 
separately. 

Now bring your grease to a boil, and add a cupful 
at a time of the weak lye till the mixture becomes 
saponified or amalgamated. Now continue to boil, 
and add strong lye till the whole is in, and after 
this continue the boiling and stirring till your soap 
becomes suflSciently thick that the spoon or stick 
may remain standing in the middle without hold- 
ing. Now add your rosin and borax in a pounded 
state, stir them in well, and pour your soap in the 
mould, or box, from which cut it in cakes to suit 
you when cold. 

Make honey and other perfumed soaps from this 
soda soap by melting again, and adding the desired 
improvements. 

Oil of rose, bitter almonds, lavender, or a little 
musk, are used for toilet soaps. 

Hard Soap from Potash. 

Take five pounds of potash, dissolve in two and 
a half gallons of boiling water; melt five pounds of 
lard or tallow in two gallons of water. Add the 
lye of potash gradually, about a pint every two 
minutes, stirring all the while. Occasionally add a 
little water to supply the place of that which evapo- 
rates during the ebullition. When the mass be- 
comes as thick as honey, and no grease remains 
unconsumed, pour in six or eight ounces of com- 
mon salt, and boil until the soap curdles and floats 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 367 

on the top, — ^it will sometimes require more than 
an hour to do this. Skim off and put in shallow 
boxes, and when cold cut into bars. To perfume 
it, stir in after it is put into boxes some oil of 
sassafras, lavender, or other essential oil. 

You may, if you choose, as soon as you put in 
the salt take the pot off, and set it aside until the 
next day, and then boil, having put in the day 
before about two gallons of water. This will make 
a fine, hard soap, good enough for anybody. 



308 UrSCELLASKOUS RECEIPTS. 

DYES.— To Dye Blaek. 

Boil together, well, one pound of logwood with 
half a gallon of good vinegar, wet your silks or 
woolens, and then put them in the pot with your 
dye, and let the pot boil slightly ; then wring them 
out, shake them, let them become cold, and return 
them to the dye. Do this three times, and then 
raise them from the pot, and allow them to drip. 
Do not wring them this time. Hang them out to 
dry, and then wash them through several clear 
waters till they cease to color the water. 

Cedar Dye. 

Boil boughs of cedar in two gallons of water, 
then take out the boughs, and add a teaspoonful 
of copperas. Drop your articles in the dye, after 
wetting them with pure water. Boil them an 
hour. 

Scarlet Dye. 

One pound of bloodroot and one of madder, 
boiled in six gallons of lye. Stir it, then allow it 
to stand twenty-four hours, till there are signs of 
fermentation. This quantity will dye ten pounds 
of cotton or linen. 

Brazil Wood Dye. 

Two pounds boiled in a bag seven hours in a 
brass kettle ; then take out the wood and add one 
pound of alum. This dyes pink; and if you wish 
purple, wash the articles in soapsuds. 



MTSCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 301) 

To Dye Cotton Black. 

First dye it with copperas, then prepare a dye of 
the following ingredients: chineapin leaves and 
buds, alder bushes, sour -wood leaves, sumach 
boughs and leaves, and parsley^ When well 
boiled and strained, boil your cotton again in 
the decoction, and when dry, wash it thoroughly 
in clear, cold water till it will no longer color it. 

To Dye Cotton or Wool Brown. 

A lady friend sends the following receipt for 
dyeing cotton or wool brown : 

Take the bark of the root of a common wild 
plum, boil in iron or brass, as most convenient, 
until the dye looks almost black; strain, and add 
a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small 
quantity of the dye; add the article to be dyed. 
Boil an hour or so ; wring out and dip in strong, 
cold lye. When dry, rinse in cold water. This 
gives a genuine bright brown, which is the pret- 
tiest contrast for blue; and when checked in to- 
gether makes a dress becoming enough for the 
proudest Southern dame or belle. Ladies, try it. 



370 MiSCELLASEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Gordon's Indelible Ink. 

Pound a number of green persimmons to a pnip, 
then pour over them sufficient water to cover them, 
and press out all the juice. Boil it down to half 
the quantity y and add a small piece of copperas. 

To RemoTe Spots of Spermaceti or Adamantine* 

Take the article into a cold place, scrape oft* 
gently all you can, and then rub the spot with cold 
alcohol or spirits of turpentine. 

To make a good Blacking for Shoes or Boots* 

The pulp of pride of China berries wet with 
molasses. 

Cold Cream* 

Two ounces of oil of sweet almonds. 

Ilalf ounce of spermaceti, 

A drachm of white wax. 

One ounce of rose-water. 

Melt the three first ingredients, and gradually 
stir in the last in very small portions. Stir it till 
cold and perfectly smooth. 

Fire-proof Wash for Kitchens* 

Slack a peck of lime in boiling water, then add 
three pounds of salt, three pounds of brown sugar, 
and one pound of alum. Color with lampblack or 
ochre. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, 371 

Paste* 

Dissolve an ounce of alum in a quart of warm 
water; when cold, add as much flour as would 
make it the consistence of cream, then throw into 
it as much powdered rosin as will stand on a shil- 
ling: add two or three cloves. Boil it to a con- 
sistence, stirring it all the time. It will keep for 
twelve months, and when dry may be softened 
with water. 



THE END. 



■V 



INDEX. 



Alahodb Beef, 192, 193. 
Alice's Pudding, 271. 
Almond Candy, 288. 

Cream, 284. 

Pudding, 268. 

Sponge Cake, 323. 
Anchovy Sauce, 214. 
Antidotes to Poisons, 361-363. 
Apees, 331. 
Apple Compote, 298. 

Dumplings, 276. 

Fritters, 278. 

Jelly, 306, 307. 

Pie, 256. 

Pudding, 264, 273. 

Turnovers, 277. 
Apples, Baked, with Tapioca, 297. 

Green, to stew, 304. 

Preserved, 297. 

Stewed, 305. 

to fry, 305. 

Transparent, 304. 
Apricots, Brandied, 308. 

Preserved, 293. 
Arrowroot, 101. 
Artichokes, 243. 
Asparagus, 242. 

Sauce, 213. 

to cultivate, 51, 52. 
Asthma, cure for, 353. 

Baked Apples, 297, 304. 

Custard, 280. 

Indian Pudding, 264. 

Pudding for two, 269. 

Tenderloin, 194. 
Barbadoes Bread Pudding, 272. 

Muffins, 149. 

Plum Cake, 316. 
Bath Cakes, 331. 
Bathing, 29. 
Batter Cakes, 145. 



Bean Soup, 170. 
Beans, Snap, 244. 
Beef, Alamode, 192, 193. 

Collared, 195. 

Corned, to boil, 198. 

Dried, 163. 

Sirloin of, 188-190. 

Soup, 169, 170. 

Tea, 100. 

to stew, 195. 

Tongues, and Venison, Mode 
of Curing, 156, 157. 
Beefsteak, 191. 
Beets, 242. 
Bell Fritters, 278. 
Binah Muffins, 148. 
Biscuits, Cream, 143. 

Drop, 320. 

Lemon, 136. 

Light, 143. 

Naples, 333. 

Soda, 143. 

Southern, 141. 

Sweet, 332. 

Sweet Potato, 139. 
Bitters, Hunter's, 350. 
Black Cake, 319. 
Blackberry Cordial, 342. 

Pudding, 270. 

Wine, 340. 
Blacking, to make, 370. 
Blanc-mange, 286. 

Farina, 281. 

Rice, 279. 
Boiled Bread, 153. 

Cherry Pudding, 269. 

Custard, 279. 

Icing, 310. 

Lemon Pudding, 274. 

Molasses Pudding, 268. 

Rice, 237, 238. 

Turkey, with Oysters, 224. 

(373) 



374 



INDEX, 



Booed Beef Roll, 194. 

Turkey, 219. 
Bran Dread, 135. 
Brandiod Aprieuts. 308. 
Brandy Pearbes, 299. 
Bra;*''«'«, tu clean, 123. 
Bread, directions for making, 132. 

Boiled, 103. 

Bran, 135. 

Tiitlage, 140. 

Plaiittr!*', 1.36. 

Premium, 132, 133. 

Puddiu}?, 2(>6. 
Breakfast, 120-128. 

Buns, 11)6. 

Creaiu Muffins, 141. 
Bride Cake, 321. 
Brittle (linger Cakes. 338. 
BruiU'd Chickens, 219. 

Chickens, gravy for, 221. 

Oysters, IS4. 
Brown Fluur Cakes, 141. 
Browning for Soup or Qraries, 197. 
Brunswick Stew, 223. 
Bryan Pone, 149. 
Buckwheat Cakes, 140. 
Buena Vista Cakes, 327. 
Buns, Breakfast, 136. 

Carolina, 332. 

Lady, 322. 

Spanish, 331. 
Burns, to cure, 353. 
Buttermilk Cakes, 149. 

Pone, 150. 

Cabbage, 243. 

Pickled, 246. 
Cakes, 314-338. 
Calf's Feet, 161. 

Head Fried, 194. 

Head Soup, 171. 

Head, to clean, 171. 

Liver, 161. 
Calves' Feet Jelly, 306. 
Cancer, to cure, 352. 
Candied Tree, 289. 
Candy, Almond. 288. 

Cocoanut, 288. 

Horehound, 290. 

Molasses, 290. 

Sugar, 288. 
Canning Fruits and Vegetables, 346. 
Canvas- back Ducks, 222. 
Carolina Buns, 3^)2. 
Carrots, 244. 



Catsap, Cocumber, 264. 

Mushroom, 248. 

Tomato, 253. 

Walnut, 251. 
Cauliflowers, 54, 240. 
Celery, 233. 

Essence, 344. 

Sauce, 215. 

to cultivate, 52-54. 
Cellars, 26. 
Charlotte- Russe, 285. 
Cheap Tea Cake, 323. 
Cheese, 40, 41. 

Cakes, 278. 

Head, 162. 

to toast, 210. 
I Cherries, Preserved, 296. 
I Cherry Bounce, 340. 
Chicken Pie, 220. 

Pot-pie, 224. 

Pudding, 245. 

Salad, 236. 

Soup, 172. 

Water, 101. 
Chickens, Broiled, 219. 

Fried, 218. 

Fried with Cream, 225. . 

to fricassee, 225. 
Children, Management of, 72-77. 

Moral Training of, 77-80. 
Chitterlings, 207. 
Chocolate, 127. 

Cream, 283. 
Cholera, remedy for, 354. 
Chow-Chow, 254. 
Chowder, 179. 
Churning, 39, 40. 
Citron Cake, 318, 320. 

from Muskmelons, 302. 

Pudding, 270. 
Clam Soup, 173. 
Clams, 182. 
Clarence Cake, 326. 
Cleaning House, 27. 
Cocoanut Cake, 324, 329. 

Candy, 288. 

Pudding, 273. 

Sponge Cake, 330. 
Codfish, 180. 
CoflFee, 123-126. 
Cold or Cough, cure for, 352. 
Cold Cream, 370. 

Slaw, 244. 
Collared Beef, 195. 
Compote of Apple, 298. 



INDEX. 



376 



Confederate Padding, 267. 

Cook, the, 17. 

Cookies, 328. 

Cordial, Blackberry, 342. 

Corn Fritters, 245. 

Green, to fry, 235. 

Pudding, 245. 
• Starch Pudding, 275. 
Corned Beef, to boil, 198. 
Cottage Bread, 140. 
Cough, cure for, 348. 
Court Bouillon, 176. 
Cows, treatment of, 42-44. 
Crab Apples, Preserved, 298. 
Crackers, Scalded, 144. 

Sitgrieves, 142. 
Cranberries, 287. 
Cranberry Sauce, 212. 
Cream Biscuits, 143. 

Cakes, 320, 325, 326. 

Nectar, 308. 

Sauce, 259. 
Crisp Johnny-Cakes, 151. • 

Muffins, 150. 

Wafers, 143. 
Croatan Pudding, 267. 
Cucumber Catsup, 254. 
Cucumbers, 244. 

to pickle, 246. 
Cup Cake, 316, 328. 
Curing Meats, 154, 164. 
Currant Jelly, 306. 
Custard, 279, 280, 281. 

Mould, 281. 

Rock, 280. 
Custis Charlotte-Busse, 265. 

Dabs, 145, 149. 
Dainty Pudding, 271. 
Dairy, 38-44. 
Damson Pickles, 249, 250. 
Deafness, cure for, 356. 
Dessert, 167, 168. 
Dewberries, Preserved, 296. 
Diarrhoea, cure for, 348. 
Dinner for a poor family, 206. 
Dinner-Table, 163-168. 
Diphtheria, 357. 
Dixie Rolls, 137. 
Doughnuts, 333. 
Dressing for Lettuce, etc., 235. 
Dried Beef, 163. 
Drop Biscuits, 320. 

Muffins, 147. 
Drunkenness, cure for, 360. 



Dry Yeast, 129. 
Ducks, Canvas-back, 222. 
Dumplings, Apple, 276. 
J)ye8, 368, 369. 
Dysentery, cure for, 353. 
Dyspepsia, to cure, 353. 

Economy, 10-12. 
Edgecombe Pudding, 265. 
Eels, to stew, 175. 
Egg Muffins, 138. 

Pie, 209. 

Plant, 241. 

Sauce, 212. 
Eggnog, 284. 
Eggs, 208-210. 

Fried, 208. 

Poached, 208. 

Scrambled, 209. 
Elderberry Wine, 341. 
Eschalot Essence, 345. 
Essence of Ginger, 344. 

of Vanilla, 345. 
Essences, Herb, for Soup> 344. 
Eve's Delight, 287. 

Pudding, 265. 

Farina Blanc-mange, 281. 

Favorite Muffins, 139. 

Fig Pudding, 273. 

Filling, 215, 216. 

Fire-proof Wash for Eitchens, 370. 

Fish, 173-180. 

to bake, 179. 

to boil, 174. 

to broil,^177. 
-to fry, 177. 

to pickle, 177. 

to stew, 179. 
Flannel Cakes, 148. 
Floating Island, 278, 279. 
Flummery, Rice, 100, 280. 
Force-meat Balls, 171. 
Fosset Pudding, 264. 
Fresh Potato Yeast, 131. 
Fricasseed Chicken, 225. 
Fried Apples, 305. 

Chickens, 218. 

Eggs, 208. 

Oysters, 181. 

Rice, 238. 
Fritters, 277. 
Frostbite, to cure, 353. 
Fruit, to dry, 347. 
Frumenty, 276. 



376 



INDEX. 



Garden, 4R-50. 

Uvneral iliuts and Directions, 20 

-;ju. 

Oiujjrrbrerul, 337. 

Sutt, •>>>8. 
Ginger ruktif, Brittle, 338. 

Ciiket*, Negru, 338. 

CakL>8, I'rc»ervedy 336. 

Ki>scuoe uf, 344. 

Nuu, 327. 

i>uup9, 334. 
Golden Luke, 315. 
Gou:»e, Ailing fur, 216. 

tu rouiil or bake a, 222. 
Gniin, tu take the husks off, 236. 
Griipu-viiu>, buw to plant a, 56-58. 
Griiviess, 211. 
Great lioiuiny, 230, 232. 
Greco Apples, tu stew, 304. 

Corn, 234. 

Corn, to frj, 235. 

Corn Pie, 234. 

GiDj^er, to preserve, 298. 

Melon Sweetmeat, 295. 

Pea Soup, 172. 

Peas, 233. 

Sweetmeats, to make, 302. 

Tomato Pickle, 247. 
Greens, 23». 
Griddle Cakes, 152. 
Ground Rice Pudding, 272. 
Gruel, Indian, 239. 

Rice, lOl. 
Guinea-Fowls, 225. 
Gumbo, 226. 

Okra for, 236. 

Hager's Cakes, 336. 
Hague Puddings, 273. 
Ham, filling for, 216. 

to boil a, 197. 

to broil, 196. 

to fry eggs with, 208. 
Hams, to cure in Pickle, 156. 
Hard Soap from Potash, 366. 
Hartshorn Jelly, 307. 
Hash, 196. 

Alamodo, 194. 
Head Cheese, 162. 
Henderson Pudding, 266. 
Henrietta Pudding, 264. 
Henry Clay Cake, 326. 
Herb Essences for Soup, 344. 
Hoo Cake, 153. 
Home, 103-116. 



Hominy, 229-232. 

Cakes, 145. 

to fry, 231. 
Honey Soap, 365. 
Hop Yeast, 129. 
llurehound Candy, 290. 
Housewifery, rules in, 119, 120. 
Hunter's Beef, 195, 196. 

Bitters, 350. 
Hydrophobia, remedy for, 352. 

Ice Cream, 282-284. 
Icing, 310-313. 
Indelible Ink, 370. 
Indian Gruel, 239. 

Mush, 238. 

Pudding, Baked, 264. 

Pudding, Boiled, 262. 
Irish Potato Pudding, 275. 

Potatoes, to boil, 227. 
Ironing, 35, 36. 

Jams, 301. 

Jelly, Apple, 306, 307 

Cake, 324. 

Calves' Feet, 306. 

Currant, 306. 

from Gelatine, 307. 

Hartshorn, 307. 

Pudding, 271. 

Quince, 306. 

without Cooking, 308. 
Jerusalem Artichokes, 243. 
Johnny-Cakes, 151. 
Julep, 343. 
Jumbles, 325, 329. 

Kitchen, 15. 

Knives, to Clean, 122. 

Lady Buns, 322. 

Cake, 318. 

Rolls, 135. 
Lady Raleigh's Charlotte - Basse, 

285. 
Lafayette Cake, 322. 
Lamb, to bake, 206. 

Pie, 206. 
Lard, to dry, 158. 
Laundry, 31-37. 
Lavender Compound, 345. 
Lemon Biscnits, 136. 

Cake, 318. , 

Ice Cream, 282, 283. 

Pudding, 271. 



IKDEJC. 



877 



Lemonade, 343. 
Lettuce, 235. 
Light Biscaits, 143. 
Liver Puddings, 160. 
Lobster Sauce, 213. 
Lockjaw, 355, 357. 

Macaroni, 209. 

Macaroons, 334. 

Mad Dog, cure for bite of, 359. 

Management of Children, 72-77. 

Mangoes, Stuffing for, 251. 

Marmalade, Orange, 300. 

Peach, 300. 

Quince, 301. 

Tomato, 247, 301. 
Mashed Potatoes, 227. 
Measles, 358. 
Meat, to smoke, 157. 
Meringue Cake, 319. 
Milk-Toast, 144. 
Minced Pies, 257. 
Mint Julep, 343. 

Sauce, 215. 
Mock Cocoauut Pudding, 275. 
Molasses Cake, 335. 

Candy, 290. 

Pound Cake, 334. 
Moonshine Syllabub, 284. 
Moral Training of Children, 77-80. 
Mould Custard, 281. 
Mountain Cake, 319. 
Mrs. Blake's Pound Cake, 314. 
Muffins, 137-150. 

Barbadoes, 149. 

Binah, 148. 

Breakfast Cream, 141. 

Crisp, 150. 

Drop, 147. 

Egg, 138. 

Favorite, 139. 

Patty, 151. 

Sponge, 137, 138. 

Tough, 138. 

Victoria, 146. 
Mush, Indian, 238. 
Mushroom Catsup, 248. 

Sauce, 213. 
Mushrooms, Stewed, 239. 
Mutton, Boiled Leg of, 202. 

Soup, 203. 

Steaks, 203. 

Stew, 202. 
Mutton-Chop, Soyer's Crab-shaped, 

203. 



Naples Biscuits, 333. 
Neapolitan Pudding, 268. 
Nectarines, Preserved, 294. 
Negro Ginger Cakes, 338. 
Negus of Port Wine, 343. 
New Year's Cake, 337. 
Newborn Syllabub, 284. 
Number One Cakes, 325. 
Nursery, 60-97. 

Okra, Dried, 347. 

for Qumbo, 236. 

Soup, 171. ' 
Okras, 243. 
Omelets, 210, 211. 
One- Two-Three-Four Cake, 317. 
Onions, 241. 
Orange Marmalade, 300. 

Pudding, 269. 
Ornaments for Iced Cakes, 311, 312. 
Osborne Syrup, 349, 350. 
Ox-tail Soup, 207. 
Oyster Fritters, 184. 

Pie, 183. 

Sauce, 214. 

Soup, 172. 
Oysters, 181. 

Broiled, 184. 

Fried, 181. 

Pickled, 183. 

Scolloped, 183. 

to roast, 184. 

to stew, 182. 

Vegetable, 240. 

Pancakes, 276. 
Parsnips, 240. 
Partridges, Potted, 221. 
Paste, 371. 
Pastry, 255-258. 
Patty Muffins, 151. 
Peach Chips, 300. 

Cream, 283. 

Mangoes, 249. 

Marmalade, 300. 
Peaches, Brandied, 299. 

how to take the stones oat of 
whole, 294. 

Preserved, 293. 

to pickle, 250, 251. 
Pears, Preserved, 294, 301. 
Peas, Green, 233. 
Pelau, 222, 223. 
Peppers, Stuffing for, 251. 
Perch, 178. 



878 



lyDEX. 



Perpico, 342. 
Pickled Oysters, 183. 
Pickles: 

Damson, 249, 260. 

(ireeu Tomato, 247. 

Oysters, 1S3. 

Peach, 250, 251. 

Sweet Peach, 250. 

Tomatoes, 247. 

Walnuts, 250. 

Yellow, 248. 
PickliDg, 246-254. 
Pie, Apple, 256. 

Chicken, 220. 

Egg, 209. 

Green Corn, 234. 

Lamb, 206. 

Minced, 257. 

Oyster, 1S3. 

Pigeon, 221. 

Sweet Potato, 256. 
Pig, to bake a, 205. 

to roast a, 204, 205. 
Pigeon Pie, 221. 
Pig's Feet, 162. 

Pineapple, to preserve whole, 294. 
Plain Haked Pudding, 263. 

Boiled Pudding, 263. 
Planters' Bread, 136. 
Plam Cake, Bnrbadues, 316. 

Pudding, 260, 261. 
Plums, Preserved, 299. 
Poached Eggs, 208. 
Poisons and Antidotes, 361-363. 
Pone, Bryan, 149. 

Buttermilk, 150. 

St. Charles, 160. 

Sweet, 152. 
Pork and Beans, 207. 

to roast a Leg of, 206. 
Port Wine Negus, 343. 
Potato Cake?, 228. 

Paste, 256. 

Pudding, 270. 

Yeast, 130. 
Potatoes, Fried, 228. 

Irish, to boil, 227. 

Mashed, 227. 

Sweet, 228. 
Pot-pie, Chicken, 224. 
Potted Partridges, 221. 
Poultry, 45-48. 

to prepare, for roasting or boil- 
ing, 216, 217. 
Pound Cake, 314. 



Premiam Bread, No. 1, 132. 

No. 2, 133. 
Preserve Pudding, 26.3. 
Preserved Qinger Cakes, 336. 
Preserves : 

Apples, 297. 

Cherries, 296. 

Crab Apples, 298. 

Dewberries, 296. 

Green Melon, 295. 

Nectarines, 294. 

Quinces, 294. 

Peaches, 293. 

Pears, 294, 301. 

Pineapples, 293, 294. 

Plums, 299. 

Raspberries, 296. 

Strawberries, 305. 

Syrup for, 293. 

Tomatoes, 296. 
Preserving- Fruits, 291, 292. 
Province Kiss Cakes, 321. 
Pudding, Almond, 268. 

Apple, 264, 273. 

Baked, for two, 269. 

Barbadoes Bread, 272. 

Blackberry, 270. 

Boiled Cherry, 269. 

Boiled Lemon, 274. 

Boiled Molasses, 268. 

Bread, 266. 

Chicken, 245. 

Citron, 270. 

Cocoanut, 273. 

Confederate, 267. 

Corn, 245. 

Corn Starch, 275. 

Croatan, 267. 

Dainty, 271. 

Edgecombe, 265. 

Eve's, 265. 

Fig, 273. 

Fosset, 264. 

Ground Rice, 272. 

Hague, 273. 

Henderson, 266. 

Henrietta, 264. 

Indian, Baked, 264. 
- Indian, Boiled, 262. 

Irish Potato, 275. 

Jelly, 271. 

Lemon, 271. 

Mock Cocoanut, 275. 

Neapolitan, 268. 

Orange, 269. 



INDEX. 



319 



Pudding, Plain Bakod, 263. 

Plain Boiled, 263. 

Plum, 260, 261. 

Potato, 270. 

Preserve, 263. 

Puff, 266. 

Pumpkin, 272. 
^ Raleigh, 274. 

Rice, 261, 262. 

Sponge Cake, 268. 

Suet, 275. 

Sunderland, 264. 

Sweet Potato, 267, 274. 

Tapioca, £65. 

Transparent, 274. 

Sauce, 259. 
Puff Paste, 255. 

•Pudding, 266. 
Puffs, 258. 

Pumpkin Pudding, 272. 
Punch, 343. 
Pyramid Cake, 313. 

Queen Cake, 318. 
Quince Jelly, 306. 

Marmalade, 301. 
Quinces, Preserved, 294. 

Raisin Cake, 320. 
Raleigh Pudding, 274. 
Raspberries, Preserved, 296. 
Raspberry Cream, 283. 

Vinegar, 254. 
Rasped Rolls, 135. 
Ratafia, 342. 

Rattlesnake-Bite, remedy for, 351. 
Religion in the Family, 87. 
Rennet, 41. 
Rice Blanc-mange, 279. 

Boiled, 237, 238. 

Cakes, 150. 

Flummery, 100, 280. 

Fried, 238. 

Gruel, 101. 

Pudding, 261, 262. 

Puffs, 239. 

Waffles, 145, 146. 
Ring Rolls, 137. 
Roast Beef of Old England, 188. 
Roasted Clams, 184. 

Eggs, 210. 

Roasting, 186-188. 

Rock Custard, 280. 

Rolls, 134. 

' Dixie, 137. 



Rolls, Lady, 135. 

Rasped, 135. 

Ring, 137. 
Rowena Cakes, 323. 
Rusk, 333. 

Salad, Chicken, 236. 
Sally-lunn, 146. 
Salmon, 180. 
Salsify, 240. 
Salt Herrings, 177. 

Shad, 178. 
Salt- Yeast Bread, 134. 
Sandwiches, 137. 
Sauce, Asparagus, 213. 

Cranberry, 212. 

Cream, 259. 

Egg, 212. 

Lobster, 213. 

Mint, 215. 

Mushroom, 213. 

Oyster, 214. 

Shrimp, 212. 

Tomato, 214. 
Sausage, to prepare Cases for, 158. 
Sausages, 159. 
Scalded Crackers, 144. 
Scarlatina, 358. 
Scolloped Oysters, 183. 
Scotch Cakes, 139. 
Scrambled Eggs, 209. 
Scrofula, cure for, 349. 
Servants, 16. 
Shad, 175, 176. 
Short Cakes, 140. 
Shrewsbury Cakes, 329. 
Shrimp Sauce, 212. 
Shrimps, 185. 
Siberian Crabs, 302. 
Sick-Room, 97-99. 

Diet for, 100-102. 
Silver Cake, 316. 
Sirloin of Beef, to bake, 189, 190. 

to roast, 188, 189. 
Sitgrieves Crackers, 142. 
Sliced Potatoes, fried, 228. 
Small Hominy, 232. 
Smallpox, cure for, 355, 356. 
Smoked Tongue, to boil, 198. 
Snap Beans, 244. 
Snowballs, to ice, 313. 
Soap Mixture for Washing, 364. 
Soaps, 364-367. 
Soda Biscuits, 143. 
Soda Soap, 365. 



380 



INDEX, 



Bod Gingerbread, 8S8. 
Boup, Bean, 170. 

Beef, 169, 170. 

Chicken, 172. 

Clam, 173. 

Green Pea, 172. 

Herb Essences for, 344« 

Muttuo, 203. 

Okra, 171. 

Ox-tail, 207. 

Oy«ter, 172. 

Turtle, 170. 
Boupo, Browning for, 107. 
Bouthern Biscuits, 141. 
Buyer's Crab-shaped Mutton Chops, 

203. 
Bpanish Bans, 331. 
Spinach, 242. 
Bponge Cake, 317, S28. 

Cake, Cucuanat, 330. 

Cnke Pudding, 268. 

Muffins, 137, 138. 
Sponges, 131. 
Spun Sugar, 290. 
Squashes, 242. 
Stew, Brunswick, 223. 

Mutton, 202. 
Stewed Apples, 305. 
Strawberries, Prenerred, 296. 

to cultivate, 59. 
Strawberry Cream, 283. 
St. Charles Pone, 150. 
Stuffing for Mangoes or Peppers, 

251. 
Sturgeon, 180. 
Suet Pudding, 275. 
Sugar Candy, 288. 
Sunderland Pudding, 264. 
Supper-Table, 339. 
Sweet Biscuits, 332. 

Pickled Peaches, 250. 

Pone, 152. 

Potato Biscuits, 139. 

Potato Johnny-Cakes, 151. 

Potato Pies, 256. 

Potato Pudding, 267, 274. 

Potatoes, 228. 

Wafers, 321. 
Syllabub, 284. 
Syrap for Preserves or Drinks, 293. 

Tapioca Pudding, 265. 
Tarts, 257. 
Tea, 126, 127. 
the, 309. 



Tea Cakes, 327, 330. 
Tenderloin, Baked, 194. 
Terrapins, 185. 
Tetter, to care, 354. 
Toast, 144. 
Tomato Catsnp, 253. 

Marmalade, 247. 

Sauce, 214. 
Tomatoes, Preserved, 296. 

Scolloped, 232. 

Sliced, 233. 

Stewed, 233. 

to dry, 347. 

to pickle, 247. 
Tough Muffins, 138. 
Transparent Apples, 304. 

Pudding, 274. 
Tripe, 207. 
Turkey, Boiled with Oysters, 224. 

Boned, 219. 

Filling for, 215. 
Turnips, 241. 
Turnovers, Apple, Peaoh, or Berry, 

277. 
Turtle Soup, 170. 
Twist Loaf, 133. 

Vanilla, Essence of, 845. 

Ice Cream, 282. 
Veal Cutlets, 204. 
Vegetable Oysters, 240. 
Vegetables, 226. 
Venison Pasty, 198, 199. 

Steaks, 202. 

Staffed Leg of, 199, 200. 

to dress in a Chafing-dish, 201. 
Victoria Muffins, 146. 
Vinegar, Raspberry, 254. 

Wafers, Crisp, 143. 

Sweet, 321. 
Waffles, 144, 145. 

Rico, 145, 146. 
Walnut Catsup, 251. 
Walnuts, to piokle, 250. 
Whigs, 147. 
Whitewashing, 28. 
Wine, Blackberry, 340. 

Elderberry, 341. 

Wild Grape, 341. 
Wine- Whey, 100. 

Yapon, 127, 128. 
Yeasts, 129-131. 
Yellow Pickles, 248. 



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